|Copyright: Nagesh Vannur (nagesh)
|Date Taken: 2014-10-15|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2014-10-17 8:02|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Plumbeous water redstart|
The plumbeous water redstart (Rhyacornis fuliginosa) is a species of bird in the family Muscicapidae. It is found in South Asia, Southeast Asia and China. Males are slate blue in colour, while females are grey. The bird's common name refers to its colour which resembles lead. They tend to live near fast-moving streams and rivers.
The plumbeous water redstart belongs to the order Passeriformes and the family Muscicapidae. The species consists of two recognized subspecies – Rhyacornis fuliginosa fuliginosa and Rhyacornis fuliginosa affinis. The former was described by Nicholas Aylward Vigors in 1831, while the latter was described by William Robert Ogilvie-Grant in 1906 and is found in Taiwan. In China, the female and first-year male redstarts appear more brown at the top, leading to the possibility of classifying them as a separate race tenuirostris.
The plumbeous water redstart is typically 14 centimetres (5.5 in) long in total, with an average weight of 22 grams (0.78 oz) for males and 18.8 grams (0.66 oz) for females. The male birds are slate blue in colour with a tail that is rusty red. On the other hand, female birds are pale grey and feature a white rump.
The bird is found in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Their preferred habitats are streams, nullahs and rivers with boulders that are shaded, as well as vegetation near riverbanks. Streams with higher populations of insects such as mayflies appear to be preferred.
They are typically found at relatively high elevations, with the ones living in the Himalayas seen between 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and 4,100 metres (13,500 ft). However, they tend to descend to lower altitudes during the winter.
The plumbeous water redstart has been placed on the Least Concern category of the IUCN Red List, as the population has remained stable throughout the last ten years. The size of its distribution range is over 5,100,000 square kilometres (2,000,000 sq mi).
The plumbeous water redstart is very protective of its habitat and will be extremely confrontational to any trespasser on its territory. In order to catch flies in rivers, it flies vertically until it is at least 20 feet (6.1 m) above the water, before gliding down in a spiral back to the same place.
BirdLife International (2012). "Rhyacornis fuliginosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b "Plumbeous Water-redstart (Rhyacornis fuliginosa)". Handbook of the Birds of the World. Internet Bird Collection. 2003. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Bezruchka, Stephen; Lyons, Alonzo (2011). Trekking Nepal: A Traveler's Guide. The Mountaineers Books. p. 291. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Dunning, John B., Jr. (December 5, 2007). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 397. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Lawrence, Walter Roper (1895). The Valley of Kashmir. Asian Educational Services. p. 150. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b c Herklots, Geoffrey Alton Craig (1936). The Hong Kong Naturalist, Volumes 7–8. Newspaper Enterprise Limited. p. 150. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sibley, Charles Gald (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press. p. 538. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ MacKinnon, John Ramsay (June 8, 2000). A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Ward, Francis Kingdon (1990). Himalayan Enchantment: An Anthology. Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 173. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Dudgeon, David; Corlett, Richard (July 1, 1994). Hills and Streams: An Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 140. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Manel, Stéphanie; Dias, Jean-Marie; Ormerod, Steve J. (August 17, 1999). "Comparing discriminant analysis, neural networks and logistic regression for predicting species distributions: a case study with a Himalayan river bird". Ecological Modelling 120 (2–3): 337–347. doi:10.1016/S0304-3800(99)00113-1. Retrieved December 3, 2013. (registration required)
Jump up ^ Negi, Sharad Singh (January 1, 1992). Himalayan Wildlife, Habitat and Conservation. Indus Publishing. p. 108. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Plumbeous Water-redstart (Rhyacornis fuliginosa)". BirdLife International. 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Brazil, Mark (January 14, 2009). Birds of East Asia. A&C Black. p. 422. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
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Location: Amboli is a hill station in south Maharashtra, India. At an altitude of 690 m it is the last hill station before the coastal highlands of Goa and a relatively unexplored one.
Amboli lies in the Sahayadri Hills of Western India, one of the world's "Eco Hot-Spots" and it therefore abounds in a variety of fairly unique flora and fauna. However, as in the other parts of the Sahaydri Hills, denudation of the forest cover and unregulated government assisted "development" (read "hotels, resorts & highways") are gradually ruining a once pristine environment.
Historically, Amboli village came into being as one of the staging posts along the road from Vengurla port to the city of Belgaum, which was extensively used by the British to supply their garrisons in south and central India.
In the hills of Amboli village lies the source of the Hiranyakeshi river, and an ancient Shiva temple (called Hiranyakeshwar) exists at the cave where the water emerges. The main attraction for tourists is the incredibly high rainfall (7 m average per year) and the numerous waterfalls and mist during the monsoons. Legend has it that there are 108 Shiva temples in and around Amboli of which only a dozen have been uncovered, one as recently as 2005. There aren't too many places to see or things to do but it is quiet, unpolluted and the local residents are good natured and helpful.,
The Western Ghats are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of Indian peninsula. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.
The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species and 288 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
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