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Anthocharis cardamines female


Anthocharis cardamines female
Photo Information
Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2011-04-01
Categories: Insects
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC HX1
Exposure: f/5.6, 1/500 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version, Workshop
Date Submitted: 2011-04-01 7:58
Viewed: 3056
Favorites: 2 [view]
Points: 74
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Class: Insecta

Order: Lepidoptera

Family: Pieridae

Subfamily: Pierinae

Tribe: Anthocharini

Genus: Anthocharis

Species: A. cardamines

The Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardamines) is a butterfly in the Pieridae family.
So named because of the male's bright orange tips to his forewings. The males are a common sight in spring flying along hedgerows and damp meadows in search of the more reclusive female which lacks the orange and is often mistaken for one of the other 'White' butterflies. The undersides are mottled green and white and create a superb camouflage when settled on flowerheads such as Cow Parsley and Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata. The male is able to hide his orange tips by tucking the forwings behind the hindwings at rest. If you look closely at the mottling you will see that the green colour is in fact made up of a mixture of black and yellow scales. It is found across Europe, and eastwards into temperate Asia as far as Japan. The past 30 years has seen a rapid increase in the range of the Orange Tip in the UK particularly in Scotland and Ireland, probably in response to climate change.
The female lays eggs singly on the flowerheads of Cuckooflower Cardimine pratensis and Garlic Mustard and many other species of wild Crucifers, all of which contain chemicals called glucosinolates. Females are attracted to larger flowers, such as Hesperis matronalis, even though some such species are poor larval hosts. Selection of foodplants is triggered by the presence of mustard oils, which are detected by chemosensory hairs on the fore-legs (is this really true? or is it glucosinolates that are stimulatory? This contributor has not been able to find a reference for the statement of a stimulatory effect of mustard oils). Reproductive rate of females appears to be limited by difficulties in finding suitable hosts. As a consequence, the species has evolved to use a wide range of crucifers. The eggs are white to begin with but change to a bright orange after a few days before darkening off just before hatching. Because the larvae feed almost exclusively on the flowers and developing seedpods there is rarely enough food to support more than one larva per plant. If two larvae meet one will often be eaten by the other to eliminate its competitor. Newly hatched larvae will also eat unhatched eggs for the same reason. To stop eggs from being laid on plants already laid on the female leaves a pheromone to deter future females from laying. There are five larval instars. The green and white caterpillar is attacked by several natural enemies (notably Tachinid flies and Braconid wasps). Pupation occurs in early summer in scrubby vegetation near the foodplant, where they stay to emerge the following spring. Recent research suggests that the emergence of the butterfly may be delayed for as much as two years, thus ensuring the species against unfavourable conditions in a given season. Some Orange Tip may be confused with moths.
Damp pastures and meadows, damp woodland edges and glades, riverbanks, ditches, dykes, fens, railway cuttings and country lanes.

Anthocharis cardamines (Linnaeus 1758) Aurora

Descrizione
Farfalla di medie dimensioni (apertura alare 40-50 mm) dalla colorazione di fondo bianca. I maschi evidenziano la metà esterna delle ali anteriori di un vivace colore arancione, mentre le femmine presentano solamente una bordatura apicale nera e margine esterno molto arrotondato. Le ali posteriori mostrano nei due sessi disegni verdastri con spolverature gialle.

Biologia
Il suo ciclo biologico mostra una sola generazione primaverile. La crisalide, svernante e di tipo succinto, appare inconfondibile per via della forma carenata e per un prominente processo cefalico. I bruchi, verde pallido o verde bluastro dorsalmente e biancastri lateralmente, si nutrono di Crucifere (gen. Cardamine, Sisymbrium, Sinapis ecc.) sulle quali si mimetizzano confondendosi con le silique.

Distribuzione ed ecologia
Presente in gran parte dell'Europa, salvo Iberia meridionale e Scandinavia settentrionale. In Italia la si ritrova abbastanza comunemente fin quasi i 2000 m. Nel circondario si riscontra con maggiore frequenza in eucalipteti e radure boschive.

PaulLees, ramthakur, marius-secan, vanda, CeltickRanger, maurydv, Silvio2006, Mamagolo2, paolo49, uleko, Luis52, eqshannon, siggi, flashpoint, manuel75, Noisette, cirano, anel, Argus, maaciejka, Ishi, jeanpaul, mvdisco has marked this note useful
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Discussions
ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To vanda: ......lousat 2 04-04 15:04
To Noisette: .....lousat 1 04-01 14:53
To mwmod99: ...lousat 1 04-01 13:38
To eqshannon: thanks!lousat 1 04-01 12:27
To Silvio2006: ...lousat 1 04-01 10:58
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Critiques [Translate]

Hi Luciano,

What can i say but a awesome image of the Orange Tip Butterfly, remarkable sharpness and definition control you have displayed here Luciano, congratulations on a job well done,

Have a good weekend, Best Regards,

Pauly.

Gem of a picture you took today, Luciano. Congratulations!
I love the play of light here; despite the subject being mostly white, you have acquired the right tone and shade of these subtle white colours. The POV is the best one can think of and the composition is a feast for the eyes. Last but not the least, dark green BG adds a great deal to the beauty of the picture as a whole.
Thanks and regards.
Ram

Hello Luciano !
Wow ! An outstanding pic from you, dear friend!Today you took my breath away...Your butterfly is still cold and is wearing an ermine stole.I´ve never seen such beauty! Wonderful colors and sharpness.Great composition! Great job,indeed! Many congrats ! TFS
Have a nice w-end!
aNa

Hello Luciano,
Splendid capture with excellent focus and razor sharp details.
Amazing clarity and fantastic natural colors.
The composition is just great. I've never seen this splendid colored butterfly in Romania.
Thanks for sharing!
Marius.

Luciano - a great shot with awesome color. The sharpness and the amazing design is truely fantastic. tfs

Ciao Luciano!
Spettacolare macro. Grande armonia di colori.
Magica luce e ottimo contrasto con lo sfondo.
Dettagli SUPERBI...occhio, peluria del corpo, "frange" delle ali: fantastiche!
Composizione eccellente.
Complimenti Luciano.
Ciao e buona serata! Vanda
-----
P.S. mi permetto proporti una mia versione nel WS: ho ulteriormente migliorato lo sfondo: che ne pensi?

Salut Luciano

Tes photos sont du Grand Art, une autre excellente photo,
superbe POV et de la façon dont le papillon et les pétales des
fleurs sont cadrés dans l'image, superbe focus netteté détails, TFS

Asbed

Ciao Luciano. Eccola qua quella alla quale risulto indigesto! L'anno scorso non ne ha voluto sapere. Quest'anno ancora non l'ho vista. Beh mi consolo apprezzando quest'altra eccellente tua esecuzione.

Roberto

  • Great 
  • nagraj Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1618 W: 106 N: 3208] (15166)
  • [2011-04-01 9:12]

Hi,
Beautiful image of this lovely butterfly with fine lighting, good details and exposure.
I re-posted lynx spider after reading your comments about the size, thanks.
nagraj.v

Ciao Luciano,
bellissima macro, come era ovvio dopo il fiore arriva la farfalla, nitidezza straordinaria, colori ben gestiti con bianchi molto puliti, con i fiori entro i limiti della possibile bruciatura, credo che sia il tipo d'immagini che ormai riesci a fare con grande padronanza e bravura, profondità di campo notevole favorito dal tipo di fotocamera che ti penalizza un po' sullo sfondo.
Grazie e complimenti
Buon fine di settimana
Ciao Maurizio

Hello Luciano,
What an beautiful capture of this stunning little butterfly. I think you've out done yourself with this one because it is as a whole such a beautiful capture with it sitting n the white flowers. Very well done and tfs.
Regards
Natley

Ciao Luciano, magnifica femmina, oggi di queste ne ho viste 4 o 5 e ci ho fatto qualche chilometro dietro per fare una sola schifosa macro di un maschio, la tua invece è magnifica, complimentoni, luce fantastica e dettagli favolosi, complimentoni, bravissimo, ciao Silvio

Ciao Luciano, davvero splendida questa immagine, i dettagli della farfalla sono veramente incredibili, se ci aggiungiamo una luce soft molto bella ed un lavoro in post produzione fantastico, ci troviamo difronte ad un capolavoro. Ciao, Paolo

  • Great 
  • uleko Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3396 W: 172 N: 3310] (10940)
  • [2011-04-01 10:26]

Hello Luciano,
Fantastic macro of this pretty little 'spring butterfly' in beautiful light that's brought out the details of the wings very sharply. It stands out so well against the green background and I like the framing. Brilliant!
TFS and best wishes, Ulla

Ciao Luciano!
bellissima la cattura, colori stupendi, sembra che abbia la rugiada sulle ali.Belli anche i fiori che compongono la foto.Complimenti.
Ciao Nico

Another excellent photo Luciano! The composition, the colours and the sharpness are fantastic.
Regards,
Christodoulos

  • Great 
  • Luis52 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1175 W: 8 N: 4240] (15809)
  • [2011-04-01 11:03]

Hola Luciano.
Exelente calidad en la imagen. De alto nivel en nitidez, iluminacion y colorido.
Como siempre muy bella foto.
Saludos Luciano.
Luis52.

Good evening Luciano,
another great macro of a beautiful butterfly. Great work.
Pierre

The pure coluor of spring white in honour of the time of year people get married. It is delightfully wonderful! Mucho appreciated.
Bob

excellent photo Luciano!
regards Nasos

  • Great 
  • PeterZ Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5137 W: 166 N: 13121] (49139)
  • [2011-04-01 12:17]

Hello Luciano,
What an amazing photo! The light is gorgeous. Splendid colours in fantastic contrast against the green OOF BG. Perfect POV and comopsition. Impressive sharpness and details.
Regards,
Peter

  • Great 
  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2011-04-01 12:37]

Hello Luciano.
Excellent macro again from your hand. Very well composed, fantastic razorsharp details and lovely colors. I especially love the eye and hair on this one. POV & DOF are very good.Best regards Siggi

Unbelievable! Beyond imaginations top quality! I am truly speechless my ever smiling friend Luciano! Wow!
Regards,
George Veltchev

Ciao Luciano,
Fantastica caro Luciano, qualità superlativa per questa bella farfalla. Splendida la luce che illumina l'ala da dietro e nitidezza meravigliosa.
Composizione e colori TOP.
Complimenti veramente
Manuel

Bonjour Luciano
eh oui, les Aurores son de retour, depuis quelques années, je rève de faire une aussi belle photo de ce superbe papillon, sans succès, cette espèce est vraiment très difficile à photographier, alors je dis bravo pour ce petit chef-d'oeuvre
Passe un bon WE
Jacqueline

  • Great 
  • cirano Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 997 W: 0 N: 944] (13609)
  • [2011-04-01 15:15]

Hello Luciano,
What a splendid image Luciano!..
This is a first class macro shot with fantastic light and excellent colors.The sharpness,details and composition are wonderful.TFS.
Have a nice day!
Dûrzan

Ciao Luciano
Les premiers papillons arrivent, et celui ci est spécialement magnifique. Le contre jour donne beaucoup de détails de façon peu ordinaire
Bravo et merci Luciano
Amitiés
Laurent

  • Great 
  • anel Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 3053 W: 3 N: 8715] (40574)
  • [2011-04-02 4:58]

Bonjour Luciano,
Une de tes dernières images montrait la plante nourricière de ce papillon, le voilà donc dans toute sa splendeur. Et une femelle qui est beaucoup plus rarement montré que le beau mâle. Très joli contre-jour et une excellente netteté comme d'habitude.
Bonne fin de semaine
Amitiés
Anne

Hello Luciano,

the delicate pattern is so skillfully captured, pin sharp in the details and with wonderful distinct colours!
Effective point of view and accurate DoF, while the deep green background enhances the butterfly nicely...

Greetings,
Pablo -

  • Great 
  • Argus Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5038 W: 260 N: 15594] (50626)
  • [2011-04-02 10:21]

Ciao Luciano,
A masterful capture!
With wonderful sharpness and excellent use of the lighting you have taken a superb portrait of a female cardamines. The contrasting dark natural BG and the fine composition on the white flower show her at her best.
Great work!
Thanks and have a good weekend,
Ivan

Hi Luciano,
perfect capture of this butterfly. I think there were good light conditions. Nice natural colours and composition.
Thanks for sharing,
Maciek

Hello Luciano,
We see many photo's of butterflies here but this must be one of the best. I totally agree with the most glowing accolades above. FABULOUS!!!!!!
Neels

bravo, bravo, bravissimo Luciano, molto bella la foto con dei dettagli e colori bellissimi, una bella farfallla che non sono riuscito mai fotografarla,

un saluto, tino

Splendida macro!!
Incredibile la nitidezza!!!
Complimenti
Fabrizio

  • Great 
  • Ishi Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 298 W: 21 N: 1943] (13387)
  • [2011-04-04 4:37]

A true beauty perfectly illuminated, conveying very well the feeling of Spring.

Well done!

Ishi

Hi Luciano
Très jolie macro
la composition en diagonale est superbe, les couleurs magnifiques et la netteté irréprochable, très très bien faite bravo
amitié... JP

Bonsoir Luciano,

Les fleurs aident au cadrage du papillon. La prise de vue rapprochée permet de voir les détails et les couleurs du papillon Aurore. la lumière de l'après-midi fait ressortir les couleurs. Bonne soirée.

Pierre

Ciao Luciano,
Tu as une magnifique collection de photos de Papillons,
Celle-ci a capté mon attention par sa beauté et composition.
Quels détails sur ses ailes et couleurs,
Bravo pour cette jolie photo...
tous mes complimenti,
Michel

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