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Pararge aegeria


Pararge aegeria
Photo Information
Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6475 W: 89 N: 15608] (65295)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2019-08-14
Categories: Insects
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC HX200V
Map: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2019-09-17 9:51
Viewed: 155
Points: 16
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Class: Insecta

Order: Lepidoptera

(unranked): Rhopalocera

Superfamily: Papilionoidea

Family: Nymphalidae

Subfamily: Satyrinae

Tribe: Elymniini

Subtribe: Parargina

Genus: Pararge

Species: P. aegeria

The Speckled Wood (Pararge aegeria) is a butterfly found in and on the borders of woodland throughout much of Europe. In Northern and Eastern Europe where subspecies P. a. tircis occurs it is brown with pale yellow or cream spots and darker upperwing eyespots. In southwestern Europe the subspecies P. a. aegeria has a colour which is more orange in the background; the hindwing underside eyespots are reddish brown rather than black or dark gray. The two forms gradually intergrade into each other. The speckled wood also occurs in North Africa and on the Atlantic island of Madeira. Molecular studies suggest that the African and Madeiran populations are closely related and distinct from European populations of both subspecies, suggesting that Madeira was colonized from Africa and that the African population has a long history of isolation from European populations.Females have brighter and more distinct markings than males. The wingspan of both males and females is 4-4.5 cm, although males tend to be slightly smaller than females. Males are highly territorial and will defend their territory against intruding males. For finding females, there exist 2 basic strategies: Some males will vigorously defend a perch and the immediate surroundings, waiting for females to pass by. Others will patrol a larger territory.Males have either 3 or 4 upper hindwing eyespots. The fourth spot shows only in flight. It appears that the 4-spotted morph tends towards patrolling behaviour to finds mates. This agrees with the probable function of the eyespots to entice predators like birds to aim for the wing margin (which may be damaged without much affecting the butterfly) rather than the body. On the other hand, habitat is apparently a major factor influencing mate-finding strategy: perching behavior is more common in males of conifer woodland, whereas males of meadows tend towards patrolling behavior.
The caterpillar is green with a short, forked tail and feeds on various species of grass including Yorkshire Fog. The chrysalis (pupa) is green or dark brown. The species is unique in its ability to overwinter in two totally separated developmental stages, as pupae or as half-grown larvae. This leads to a complicated pattern of several adult flights per year.

PARARGE AEGERIA
Descrizione
Satiro di media grandezza (apertura alare 40-50 mm), con colore di fondo giallo-arancio e disegni scuri a scacchiera. Superiormente, le ali anteriori presentano un piccolo ocello apicale, le posteriori tre ocelli forniti di pupilla. Le parti inferiori hanno disegni confusi su di un fondo giallo-verdastro. Sessi simili, a parte la vistosa macchia androconiale dei maschi.

Biologia
Sverna allo stadio larvale (talvolta anche come pupa) e da marzo inizia una serie di generazioni che si protraggono fino ad ottobre. Il bruco è verde-giallastro con una banda medio-dorsale verde-scura e due appendici anali bianche; sue piante nutrici sono Graminacee di vario genere (Agropyron, Dactylis, Poa, Triticum ecc.). Le crisalidi sono di tipo sospeso.
Distribuzione ed ecologia
Il suo areale si estende dall'Europa all'Asia centrale; presente anche in Nordafrica ed Asia Minore. In Europa è diffusa ovunque, tranne Scandinavia settentrionale, ed è in espansione nelle isole britanniche. Specie comune nel comprensorio, particolarmente legata ad ambienti ombrosi o umidi, come prati prospicienti a bacini lacustri.

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Critiques [Translate]

Ciao Luciano, la Pararge mi sta simpatica, che ama l'ombra come me e non è schizzata come le altre, gran macro con dettagli strepitosi, splendida luce, ottima nitidezza e magnifici colori, bravissimo, ciao Silvio

  • Great 
  • mamcg Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 330 W: 12 N: 90] (9652)
  • [2019-09-18 8:02]

You brought the leaf in frame, good idea and this is a hard composition as there are much contrast IN, well exposed nice catch and TFS.

Luciano very nice composition with good light and lovely colours
thanks gr lou

  • Great 
  • hsn6a Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 156 W: 0 N: 434] (8575)
  • [2019-09-18 23:29]

beautiful..

Bonjour Luciano,

La feuille aide au cadrage de l'insecte. La prise de vue permet de voir les détails du papillon Tircis. La lumière rehausse la beauté des couleurs. Bonne journée.

Pierre

As always distinguish and demonstrative work lovely 3D ensemble and colourful image of wild life well done again

LUCIANO GOLLINI

Hello Luciano,
Well captured this Speckled Wood butterfly. Details and colors looks perfect. I like its natural habitat too. Well documented, Luciano.
Thanks and regards,
Srikumar

Hi Luciano,
This photo almost confused me as I thought the butterfly is captured with semi-opened wings. Of course, while seeing the details of the upper wing we must realize the model's wings are closed... Absolutely greaat optical effect! I like the overall environment also, that you caught the Speckled Wood in their natural habitat, in a predominantly shady forest with sunny spots. Rulebreaker composition also, as the butterfly looks out of the frame, while they aare composed into a third. The image, also seems simplistic, is a unique and magnificent one. Hats off for you!
Kind regards from Ireland, László

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