|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
Apis subterranea LINNAEUS 1758 (nec. L. 1758); Apis cinerea GEOFFROY 1785 (nec. SCHRANK); Colletes pilosus SPINOLA 1838; Colletes hirtus LEPELETIER 1825;
The nest comprises a slightly inclined tunnel, some 45-55 cm deep, with cells built at the ends of side branches. These branches are concentrated in the deepest quarter of the nest, so that the vertical distance between the shallowest and deepest cells is only 4-8 cm. The mass emergence of males (from the upper cells) occurs in the afternoon of the day before mass emergence of females. Like all species of Colletes, C. cunicularius lines its brood cells with a transparent cellophane-like membrane. This is waterproof, resistant to fungal attack and presumably maintains the correct level of humidity during larval development. The source of the membrane is a liquid secretion of the Dufour's gland in the abdomen. The female bee uses her short, bilobed tongue as a kind of paint brush to spread the oily secretion over the internal surface of her cell. It dries to form a clear membrane.
In addition to creeping willow, both sexes have been observed in South Glamorgan by R Paxton (pers. comm.) visiting dandelion (Taraxacum sp.) flowers, presumably only for nectar. In Brittany, S Roberts has observed both sexes nectaring at blackthorn (Prunus spinosa).
In continental Europe, the species is parastised by Sphecodes albilabris (Westrich, 1989; Söderman & Leinonen, 2003).
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Una foto macro ben riuscita,eccellente nitidezza con ottimi dettagli,stupendi i colori,bella la composizione bravo.
Great macro, with nice tone and excellent framing. well done.
- [2012-11-04 12:39]
Spectacular sharp detailed macro in splendid light and colours. Beautiful matching background. Nice choice of composition.
- [2012-11-04 13:18]
Hi Marx,a top class pic whit spectacular details and warm colors,there is all the summer juice inside,a great memory of this season,i like it! Have a nice week and thanks,Luciano
- [2012-11-04 23:28]
Fine composition and colors for this lovely species..tfs.