<< Previous Next >>

Anthocharis cardamines


Anthocharis cardamines
Photo Information
Copyright: Grosu Lucian (Luke) Silver Note Writer [C: 1 W: 0 N: 10] (44)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2011-05-10
Categories: Insects
Camera: Canon EOS 1000D, Sigma 70-300mm F4-5.6 DG Macro
Exposure: f/9.0, 1/400 seconds
Details: Tripod: Yes
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2011-05-31 13:20
Viewed: 2528
Points: 0
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Orange Tip(Anthocharis cardamines)

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Division: Rhopalocera
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Pieridae
Tribe: Anthocharini
Genus: Anthocharis
Species: A. cardamines
Binomial name:
Anthocharis cardamines(Linnaeus, 1758)

Appearance, behaviour and distribution
So named because of the male's bright orange tips to his forewings. The males are a common sight in spring flying along hedgerows and damp meadows in search of the more reclusive female which lacks the orange and is often mistaken for one of the other 'White' butterflies. The undersides are mottled green and white and create a superb camouflage when settled on flowerheads such as Cow Parsley and Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata. The male is able to hide his orange tips by tucking the forwings behind the hindwings at rest. If you look closely at the mottling you will see that the green colour is in fact made up of a mixture of black and yellow scales. It is found across Europe, and eastwards into temperate Asia as far as Japan. The past 30 years has seen a rapid increase in the range of the Orange Tip in the UK particularly in Scotland and Ireland, probably in response to climate change.

Lifecycle and foodplants
The female lays eggs singly on the flowerheads of Cuckooflower Cardamine pratensis and Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata and many other species of wild Crucifers, all of which contain chemicals called glucosinolates. Females are attracted to larger flowers, such as Hesperis matronalis, even though some such species are poor larval hosts. Selection of foodplants is triggered by the presence of mustard oils and their derivative glucosinolates, which (in Pierinae)are detected by chemosensory hairs on the fore-legs. Reproductive rate of females appears to be limited by difficulties in finding suitable hosts. As a consequence, the species has evolved to use a wide range of crucifers. The eggs are white to begin with but change to a bright orange after a few days before darkening off just before hatching. Because the larvae feed almost exclusively on the flowers and developing seedpods there is rarely enough food to support more than one larva per plant. If two larvae meet one will often be eaten by the other to eliminate its competitor. Newly hatched larvae will also eat unhatched eggs for the same reason. To stop eggs from being laid on plants already laid on the female leaves a pheromone to deter future females from laying. There are five larval instars. The green and white caterpillar is attacked by several natural enemies (notably Tachinid flies and Braconid wasps). Pupation occurs in early summer in scrubby vegetation near the foodplant, where they stay to emerge the following spring. Recent research suggests that the emergence of the butterfly may be delayed for as much as two years, thus ensuring the species against unfavourable conditions in a given season. Some Orange Tips may be confused with moths.

Habitat
Damp pastures and meadows, damp woodland edges and glades, riverbanks, ditches, dykes, fens, railway cuttings and country lanes.

Subspecies:
A. c. progressa (Sovinsky 1905)
A. c. septentionalis (Wnukowsky 1927)
A. c. phoenissa (von Kalchberg 1894)
A. c. alexandra (Hemming 1933)
A. c. hibernica (Williams 1915)
A. c. koreana (Matsumura 1925)
A. c. kobayashii (Matsumura 1925)
A. c. isshikii (Matsumura 1925)
A. c. hayashii (Fujioka 1970)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

brech has marked this note useful
Only registered TrekNature members may rate photo notes.
Add Critique [Critiquing Guidelines] 
Only registered TrekNature members may write critiques.
Discussions
None
You must be logged in to start a discussion.

Critiques [Translate]

No critiques
Calibration Check
















0123456789ABCDEF