Bryce Canyon 2
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|The second part of information about Bryce Canyon. For me one of the most impressive places on earth. |
The Bryce Canyon area shows a record of deposition that spans from the last part of the Cretaceous period and the first half of the Cenozoic era. The ancient depositional environment of the region around what is now the park varied. The Dakota Sandstone and the Tropic Shale were deposited in the warm, shallow waters of the advancing and retreating Cretaceous Seaway (outcrops of these rocks are found just outside park borders). The colorful Claron Formation, from which the park's delicate hoodoos are carved, was laid down as sediments in a system of cool streams and lakes that existed from 63 to about 40 million years ago (from the Paleocene to theEocene epochs). Different sediment types were laid down as the lakes deepened and became shallow and as the shoreline and river deltas migrated.
Several other formations were also created but were mostly eroded away following two major periods of uplift. The Laramide orogeny affected the entire western part of what would become North America starting about 70 million to 50 million years ago.
This event helped to build the Rocky Mountains and in the process closed the Cretaceous Seaway. The Straight Cliffs, Wahweap, and Kaiparowits formations were victims of this uplift. The Colorado Plateaus were uplifted 16 million years ago and were segmented into different plateaus, each separated from its neighbors by faults and each having its own uplift rate. The Boat Mesa Conglomerate and the Sevier River Formation were removed by erosion following this uplift.
This uplift created vertical joints, which over time were preferentially eroded. The easily eroded Pink Cliffs of the Claron Formation responded by forming freestanding pinnacles in badlands called hoodoos, while the more resistant White Cliffs formed monoliths. The brown, pink and red colors are from hematite; the yellows from limonite; and the purples are from pyrolusite. Also created were arches, natural bridges, walls, and windows. Hoodoos are composed of soft sedimentary rock and are topped by a piece of harder, less easily eroded stone that protects the column from the elements. Bryce Canyon has one of the highest concentrations of hoodoos of any place on Earth.
The formations exposed in the area of the park are part of the Grand Staircase. The oldest members of this supersequence of rock units are exposed in the Grand Canyon, the intermediate ones in Zion National Park, and its youngest parts are laid bare in Bryce Canyon area. A small amount of overlap occurs in and around each park.
More than 400 native plant species live in the park. There are three life zones in the park based on elevation: The lowest areas of the park are dominated by dwarf forests of pinyon pine and juniper with manzanita, serviceberry, and antelope bitterbrush in between. aspen, cottonwood, water birch, and willow grow along streams. Ponderosa pine forests cover the mid-elevations with blue spruce and Douglas fir in water-rich areas and manzanita and bitterbrush as underbrush. Douglas fir and white fir, along with aspen and Engelmann spruce, make up the forests on the Paunsaugunt Plateau. The harshest areas have limber pine and ancient Great Basin bristlecone pine, some more than 1,600 years old, holding on.
The forests and meadows of Bryce Canyon provide the habitat to support diverse animal life, from birds and small mammals to foxes and occasional bobcats, cougars, and black bears. Mule deer are the most common large mammals in the park. Elk and pronghorn, which have been reintroduced nearby, sometimes venture into the park.
Bryce Canyon National Park forms part of the habitat of three wildlife species that are listed under the Endangered Species Act: the Utah prairie dog, the California condor, and the southwestern willow flycatcher. The Utah prairie dog is a threatened species that was reintroduced to the park for conservation, and the largest protected population is found within the park's boundaries.
About 170 species of birds visit the park each year, including swifts and swallows. Most species migrate to warmer regions in winter, although jays, ravens, nuthatches, eagles, and owlsstay. In winter, the mule deer, mountain lion, and coyotes migrate to lower elevations. Ground squirrels and marmots pass the winter in hibernation.
Eleven species of reptiles and four species of amphibians have been found at in the park. Reptiles include the Great Basin rattlesnake, short-horned lizard, side-blotched lizard, striped whipsnake, and the tiger salamander.
Also in the park are the black, lumpy, very slow-growing colonies of cryptobiotic soil, which are a mix of lichens, algae, fungi, and cyanobacteria. Together these organisms slow erosion, add nitrogen to soil, and help it to retain moisture.
Hotelcalifornia, ramthakur, anel, lovenature has marked this note useful
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- [2015-11-02 7:45]
Hi Peter,a second spectacular view from the Bryce Canyon! The rocks are so perfect that seems made and cut by a machine,and what a quality,sharpness and colors very very perfect,you were lucky to be there! Have a nice evening and thanks,Luciano
Hier wordt je ook echt stil van zo mooi
super opname met die prachtige kleuren
weer 1 om trots op te zijn
impressive shot from Bryce Canyon, great POV, details and colors
it's real a magic place
Have a good night
Another close photograph. Very nicely captured and well edited. Can see different kind of rock formation....
Thanks for sharing,
These formations remind me of the Buddhist shrines in South Asia, Peter. What nature's inimitable architecture there!
Superb perspective to present this aspect of the Canyon.
- [2015-11-03 12:59]
The POV is excellent and the colours are vivid and well seen.Very well focused with good detail.Nicely done.Regards Sigi
Ciao Peter, fantastic landscape, wonderful bright colors, fine details, splendid light and superb sharpness, very well done, my friend, ciao Silvio
- [2015-11-03 17:09]
A great choice of showing us the hoodoos in the best possible lighting and color. The detail is fantastic and exposure is perfect. Your images really bring back some fond memories of this wonderful place. TFS.
- [2015-11-04 19:48]
Great landscape, Peter. Interesting and intrincate formations.
- [2015-11-05 12:17]
Very impressive, indeed. Would like to see these canyons too. You might have seen different animals and birds too. We are looking forward to see them.
A spectacular view of the Bryce Canyon. Never seen before.
- [2015-11-09 10:27]
Next beautiful photo, really nice place.
Excellent detail and focus and amazing colors.
Oh my goodness the rock formation at Bryce Canyon are amazing, it's a place I must visit one day. You've captured the layers in the rock and colours perfectly. Your notes are great!