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Primula vulgaris Huds.

Primula vulgaris Huds.
Photo Information
Copyright: Ena Simic (Ena) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 324 W: 61 N: 594] (2454)
Genre: Plants
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2008-02-22
Categories: Flowers
Exposure: f/4, 1/50 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Theme(s): Flower(Yellow)II [view contributor(s)]
Date Submitted: 2008-02-22 16:03
Viewed: 8369
Points: 68
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Captured today in my garden!

Primula vulgaris Huds.

Primula vulgaris (syn. P. acaulis (L.) Hill) is a species of Primula native to western and southern Europe (from the Faroe Islands and Norway south to Portugal, and east to Germany, Ukraine, the Crimea, and the Balkans), northwest Africa (Algeria), and southwest Asia (Turkey east to Iran). The common name is Primrose, or occasionally Common Primrose or English Primrose to distinguish it from other Primula species also called primroses.

It is a herbaceous perennial plant, low growing, to 10-30 cm tall, with a basal rosette of leaves. The leaves are 5-25 cm long and 2-6 cm broad with an irregularly crenate to dentate margin, and a usually short leaf stem. The flowers are 2-4 cm diameter, borne singly on a slender stem, pale yellow, white, red, or purple (see further below), actinomorphic with a superior ovary which later forms a capsule which opens by valves to release the small black seeds. The flowers are hermaphrodite but heterostylous; individual plants bear either pin flowers (with the capita of the style prominent) or thrum flowers (with the stamens prominent). Fertilisation can only take place between pin and thrum flowers. Pin to pin and thrum to thrum pollination is ineffective.

It flowers in early spring, one of the earliest spring flowers in much of Europe, and in appropriate conditions, can cover the ground in open woods.

In more populated areas it has sometimes suffered from over-collection and theft so that few natural displays of primroses in abundance can now be found. To prevent excessive damage to the species, picking of primroses or the removal of primrose plants from the wild is illegal in many countries, e.g. the UK (Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, Section 13, part 1b).

There are three subspecies:

* Primula vulgaris subspecies vulgaris. Western and southern Europe. As described above; flowers pale yellow.
* Primula vulgaris subsp. balearica (Willk.) W.W.Sm. & Forrest. Balearic Islands (endemic). Flowers white. Leaf stem longer than leaf blade.
* Primula vulgaris subsp. sibthorpii (Hoffmanns.) W.W.Sm. & Forrest. Balkans, southwest Asia. Flowers pink to red or purple.
It is distinguished from other species of Primula by its pale yellow flowers produced singly on long flower stalks which are covered in rather shaggy hairs. The flowers open flat rather than concave as in the case of Primula veris, the Cowslip.

Cultivation and uses
Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden planting, often derived from subsp. sibthorpii or hybrids between the subspecies; these and other garden hybrids are available in a wide range of colours and with an extended flowering season.
Pink and red flowered primroses growing in natural conditions in western Europe are usually naturalised from garden escapes, though a pink-flowered form is reported locally as a wild plant in Wales. Both flowers and leaves are edible, the flavour ranging between mild lettuce and more bitter salad greens. The leaves can also be used for tea, and the young flowers can be made into primrose wine.

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Mangnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae
Genus: Primula
Species: P. vulgaris


mirceax, rousettus, boreocypriensis, Juyona, uleko, jpdenk, jusninasirun, Alex99, Jamesp, Luis52, CENT-TRETZE, nirmalroberts, izler, XOTAELE, xTauruSx, nkasot, bahadir, zulfu, saguzar, dejo has marked this note useful
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Critiques [Translate]

Hi Ena,
Very beautiful spring shot with beautiful colours and details.You are lucky, here in Canada(Montreal) the spring is far awy , we have -15 C and a lot of snow....

Have a nice weekend,


Hello Ena,
Primula species very beautiful. You are lucky that they flowering in the garden. Almost everywhere is covered by snow in this city. But in my hometown (BlackSea), they with flowers are common, especially hazelnut garden, nowadays. Mostly pink flowers, less yellow as like yours.
This macro capture great with sharp details, splendid natural colors. Nicely composed. TFS, have a nice weekend

Magnifique, superbe composition , très belles couleurs naturelles.

Hi Ena,

A beautiful springflower with beutiful details and colours.
In the netherlands is these flower a Red list specie.

Regards Gert

Hello Ena,
This delicate flower is skilfully captured!
I like the simplicity in composition, well balanced presentation and fine details in the petals...
Attractive colour palette, close-up work well done!
Pablo -

Ciao Ena, bella primula, splendidamente messa a fuoco e con una magnifica tonalità di giallo, piacevole segnale della primavera che arriva, ti auguro un buon week end, ciao Silvio

Selam Ena,

A wonderful capture of this Primula sp. with splendid focus, wonderful colors, great light and excellent sharpness! TFS.
Have a nice weekend friend!


  • Great 
  • Juyona Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor [C: 2232 W: 10 N: 2971] (16891)
  • [2008-02-23 4:52]

Hola Ena,
interesante macro,
color y detalles...
buen trabajo,

  • Great 
  • uleko Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3396 W: 172 N: 3310] (10940)
  • [2008-02-23 5:47]

Hello Ena,
We don't have these Primulas in the wild in Sweden but I have seen it in England along the hedges - it is very beautiful! Excellent close capture in natural colours and a fine composition too.
Many thanks and regards, Ulla

Hello Ena,

Another beautiful flora for ud here. Thanks for sharing this one.

Nice capture under good light in a well spread view of the whole plant. Excellent details and good sharpness in the shot. Well done and have a wonderful weekend.


  • Great 
  • Alex99 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4072 W: 133 N: 7096] (23735)
  • [2008-02-23 9:23]

Hi Ena.
Once more wonderful shot of beautiful plant and flower and again you managed to show all its beauty. Great upper POV and framing. I like refined colours and reproduction of the petals and leaves. Sharpness of the plant is perfect as well as the reflection of the BG (cute ground covered by tiny vegetation). Well done and TFS.

Merhaba Ena,
Very very nice yellow flower and good composition. TFS.
Best wishes,

  • Great 
  • Mana Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1772 W: 36 N: 5597] (18598)
  • [2008-02-23 13:40]

Hi Ena,
Wonderful shot of this beautiful yellow flower bathed in warm sunlight. Very neat and sharp image and I like your top POV to portray it. Fine composition. Kudos.

  • Great 
  • Jamesp Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1369 W: 9 N: 6334] (18906)
  • [2008-02-23 23:54]

Hi Ena

Great POV with excellent detail and exposure.


  • Great 
  • lousat Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
  • [2008-02-24 14:06]

Ciao Ena,vedo che qualche fiore nuovo inizia a mostrarsi..molto bella la tua foto,soprattutto per i colori molto delicati,ciao,buona settimana,Luciano

Good greens and yellows. Well sharpened. Hope this does not mean you are trying to lead us down the primrose path.

  • Great 
  • Luis52 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1175 W: 8 N: 4240] (15809)
  • [2008-02-24 17:49]

Hola Ena.
Great and colorful image You have here. The note is very interesing for me. Very sharp and well focus.
Saludos Ena.

Bella composizione e buon utilizzo della luce che ha reso bene i colori con varie sfumature e tonalità di giallo. Complimenti. Ciao Maurizio

Hello Ena;

A picture like all you do, very well done, and more detailed comments. It is a joy to see and read what we show.

Greeting very cordia and a kiss.


Hi Ena,
Beautiful flower. TFS.
- Nirmal

Simple, elegante y con buen encuadre. Luz algo "subida" en algunos puntos de los pétalos.
Un abrazo: J. Ignasi

  • Great 
  • EOSF1 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1393 W: 119 N: 5267] (23955)
  • [2008-02-26 5:07]

Hello Ena, very well done shot of this beautiful yellow flower, it's pin sharp, the exposure is well done and the overall quality is high! Thanks!


  • Great 
  • izler Gold Star Critiquer [C: 1387 W: 3 N: 9] (44)
  • [2008-02-26 13:47]

hello Ena
well close-up working on this beautiful and interesting plant
i like composition, point of view, lighting, colours, sharpness, details and informative note
thanks for sharing

hello ena,
beautiful capture of the flower, the pov is appropriate and the colours are so beautiful,
tfs & regards

Hola Ena.
Una imagen preciosa.
Colores tenues, delicados.
Una buena nota.
Saludos amiga, JL.

  • Great 
  • cako Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 485 W: 0 N: 772] (3395)
  • [2008-02-28 12:13]

Hi Ena
This is very beautiful spring shot and nice colors
very good sharp
well done.

Hi Ena,
A wonderful capture of this nice folwer with superb composition, excellent details and sharpnes. This one is also wonderful. TFS. Regards,

  • Great 
  • arfer Gold Star Critiquer [C: 2731 W: 0 N: 0] (0)
  • [2008-03-01 17:58]

Hello Ena

This is a beautiful capture of this Primula.
Wonderful warm lighting,the colours are vivid and well saturated.
The low POV really is well done,I like the details and textures here.
You have captured wonderful texture in the leaves and mosses.
Well focused.


Hi Ena, A perfect image. All is perfect; composition colors details contrast, all is beautiful. TFS.

Hi Ena,
Great shot, lovely composition and super frame. TFS.

  • Great 
  • zulfu Gold Star Critiquer [C: 685 W: 0 N: 2] (43)
  • [2008-03-04 9:34]

Hello Ena, splendid shot very well focused and wonderfull natural colors.

Hi Ena,
A nice plante, we call here primavera (means spring season)and is of course a cultivated plant, commonly found in it red and yellow coloration. A good close-up accompanied by an useful note

  • Great 
  • dejo Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 344 W: 51 N: 520] (2242)
  • [2008-03-25 0:51]

Ciao Ena,
fina kolekcija proljetnog cvijeca :)
odlican close-up sa dobrom expozicijom,

Bonsoir Ena
Les primevères sont toujours appréciées car elles annoncent les beaux jours.
J'aime particulièrement cette couleur
Merci à Bientôt

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