<< Previous Next >>

European dark bee

European dark bee
Photo Information
Copyright: Anghel Eliz (eliz) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 167 W: 20 N: 271] (1537)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2007-03
Categories: Insects
Camera: Konica-Minolta Dynax 5D, Pentacon 50/1.8, RAW ISO 100, Extension Tube
Exposure: f/5.6, 1/500 seconds
Photo Version: Original Version
Theme(s): My Insects [view contributor(s)]
Date Submitted: 2008-09-04 4:07
Viewed: 5760
Points: 10
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Apis mellifera mellifera (lat.) / European dark bee (en.) / Albina neagra europeana (ro.)
European dark bee was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. These small, dark-colored honey bees are sometimes called the German black bee, although they occurred originally from Britain to eastern Central Europe.
There are three main breeds, namely
* mellifera (brown bee)
* lehzeni (heathland bee)
* nigra (black bee),

which have local variants, such as the Pomeranian Brown, the Alps Black, or the Black Scandinavian.
The European dark bee can be distinguished from other subspecies by their stocky body, abundant thoracal and sparse abdominal hair which is brown, and overall dark coloration; in nigra, there is also heavy dark pigmentation of the wings. Overall, when viewed from a distance, they should appear blackish, or in mellifera, rich dark brown. The aggressive feral hybrids with other subspecies can be distinguished by the lighter, yellowish banding on the sides of the abdomen, but this is often difficult. For breeding pure dark bees according to the standard, details of the wing veins are nowadays considered to be the only reliable distinguishing character.

Hybrids have a defensive character and have the reputation of stinging people (and other creatures) for no apparent reason. Some colonies are very "runny" on the comb and so excitable that beekeepers consider them difficult to work with. This characteristic is not, however, one that has been traditionally associated with the dark bee breeds, which were previously known for their rather easy handling (though they have never been considered as placid as the Carniolan honey bee).

Their qualities are:
* significant winter hardiness
* low tendency to swarm
* some lines are very gentle
* defensive against invaders i.e. wasps
* careful, maritime brood cycle
* strong drive to collect pollen
* high longevity of the worker bees and queen
* excellent flight strength even in cold weather
* possibly hardiness against varroa

Apis mellifera mellifera is no longer a significant commercial subspecies of the Western honey bee, but there are a number of dedicated hobbyist beekeepers that keep these bees in Europe and other parts of the world. Immigrants brought these subspecies into the Americas. Prior to their arrival, the American continent did not have any honey bees. Hybrid descendants of the original colonial black bees may also have survived in North America as feral bees. There are reports by beekeepers that, after the arrival of the Varroa mite on the American continent in 1987, some feral bee colonies survived. The original form is no longer present in North America. A common myth regarding European black bees is that they cannot sting because they do not have a stinger.

In Western Europe, dark bee breeds were the original honey bee stock until creation of the Buckfast bee. This is a hybrid breed whose progeny includes salvaged remnants of the British black bee, nearly extinct by then due to Acarapis woodi (acarine mite). The breeding stocks in Central Europe were nearly destroyed by order of the Nazis, who considered the honey yields not up to modern standards and wanted to "improve" the bee stocks kept in areas under their control.

This led to the creation of more aggressive, high-yield breeds (probably by cross-breeding dark and Buckfast high-yield strains with Carniolan honey bees), which, however, were very susceptible to Varroa mite infection and unpleasant to handle and were dropped from use after World War II, but just as in North America, some feral colonies survive. Dedicated breeders and research facilities are today working on preserving and spreading what could be saved from the original stocks. There are only a handful of colonies present in Germany, but larger numbers have survived in Norway (lehzeni), the Alps (nigra) and Poland and Belgium (mellifera).

soccer, Seabird, drt100, Alek13 has marked this note useful
Only registered TrekNature members may rate photo notes.
Add Critique [Critiquing Guidelines] 
Only registered TrekNature members may write critiques.
You must be logged in to start a discussion.

Critiques [Translate]


Amazingingly sharp macro and well detailed pic. The POV, Composition, clarity and DOF all combine to make this a really great pic.


Hi, Eliz,

wonderful capture of great details and interesting pose : ) thanks for sharing this beauty!

Man Yee

very interesting capture and lovely pov great notes too. full marks from me.

Another great shot! Awesome detail and beautifully saturated colours. Well done.


Wow, what a great shot. You have done very well and have a real talent for this. Great notes, you must do a considerable amount of research to provide us with such details. You should receive great useful marks for these.

Calibration Check