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Gymnadenia conopsea


Gymnadenia conopsea
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Copyright: Emilian Pricop (Emiii) Silver Note Writer [C: 8 W: 0 N: 30] (103)
Genre: Plants
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2008-07-30
Categories: Flowers
Exposure: f/6.3, 1/250 seconds
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Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2009-04-14 9:33
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[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Gymnadenia

Gymnadenia is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) containing 22 terrestrial species.

They can be found in damp meadows, fens and marshes, and on chalk or limestone, often in alpine regions of Europe and Asia up to the Himalayas. The Fragrant Orchid (Gymnadenia conopsea) has been introduced into the USA.

These hardy terrestrial orchids are deciduous. They survive the winter through their corms, two deep-cut tubers (more like tuberous roots). Long lanceolate green leaves grow at the bottom of the stem. There are some small leaves at the stop of the stem.

They flower during the summer. The inflorescence is a dense cylindrical spike between 5 and 30 cm long. It can consists of up to 150 small pleasant-smelling flowers. Their color can vary from pale purple to pink and white. The lip is wide with three lobes. The marginal petals are horizontal. There is a long, thin, threadlike spur.

Several species were formerly classified under Nigritella. The nothogeneric name ×Gymnigritella was used for hybrids between these two groups.

Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br., Hortus Kew.

* Orchis conopsea L., Sp. Pl.: 942 (1753).
Satyrium conopseum (L.) Wahlenb., Fl. Suec. 2: 579 (1826).
Habenaria conopsea (L.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 354 (1880), nom. illeg.
Habenaria gymnadenia Druce, Fl. Berkshire: 479 (1897).
Orchis cornopica Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: 8 (1768), orth. var.
Orchis ornithis Jacq., Fl. Austriac. 2: 23 (1774).
Orchis setacea Gilib., Excerc. Phyt. 2: 482 (1792).
Orchis suaveolens Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 7 (1796).
Orchis peloria Foucault ex Poir., Encycl., Suppl. 4: 179 (1816).
Gymnadenia ornithis (Jacq.) Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 35 (1817).
Gymnadenia comigera Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 121 (1830).
Gymnadenia sibirica Turcz. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 277 (1835).
Gymnadenia anisoloba Peterm., Deutschl. Fl. 2: 548 (1849).
Gymnadenia conopsea var. serotina Schönh., Taschenb. Fl. Thüringen: 432 (1850).
Gymnadenia conopsea var. alpina Turcz. ex Rchb.f., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: t. 73 (1851).
Gymnadenia wahlenbergii Afzel. ex Rchb.f., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: 114 (1851).
Orchis conopea Gras, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 9: 334 (1862).
Gymnadenia transsilvanica Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 644 (1866).
Orchis pseudoconopea Gren., Fl. Jurass. 2: 751 (1869).
Gymnadenia conopsea var. ornithis (Jacq.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 695 (1882).
Gymnadenia conopsea var. pyrenaica (Philippe) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 695 (1882).
Gymnadenia pyrenaica (Philippe) Giraudias, J. Bot. (Morot) 6: 479 (1892).
Orchis pseudoconopsea P.E.Parm., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 7: 343 (1894).
× Orchigymnadenia comigera (Rchb.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 3: 851 (1907).
Gymnadenia conopsea raçe alpina (Turcz. ex Rchb.f.) Rouy, Fl. France 13: 100 (1912).
Gymnadenia ibukiensis Makino in Y.Iinuma, Somoku-Dzusetsu, ed. 3, 4: 1215 (1912).
Gymnadenia pseudoconopsea (P.E.Parm.) Rouy in G.Rouy & J.Foucaud, Fl. France 13: 99 (1912).
× Dactylogymnadenia comigera (Rchb.) Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 79: 413 (1969).
Gymnadenia alpina (Turcz. ex Rchb.f.) Czerep., Sosud. Rast. SSSR: 310 (1981).
× Dactylodenia comigera (Rchb.) Aver., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 71: 93 (1986).
Gymnadenia × densiflora var. candida G.Foelsche & W.Foelsche, J. Eur. Orch. 31: 804 (1999).
Gymnadenia orchidis var. pantlingii Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 112 (2001).
Gymnadenia conopsea f. albiflora Y.N.Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4: 1167 (2002).
Gymnadenia splendida Dworschak, Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal 55: 35 (2002).
Gymnadenia splendida subsp. odorata Dworschak, Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal 55: 37 (2002).
Gymnadenia vernalis Dworschak, Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal 55: 31 (2002).
Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. serotina (Schönh.) Dworschak, Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal 55: 39 (2003).

References
Pricop I. Emilian, 2009, STUDIUL FLOREI DIN BAZINUL MIJLOCIU AL BISTRIŢEI (JUD. NEAMŢ) IN VEDEREA EVALUARII UTILITATILOR IN FITOTERAPIE ALE UNOR SPECII, UNIVERSITATEA „ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” IAŞI FACULTATEA DE BIOLOGIE, SECŢIA BIOLOGIE, specializarea: Biodiversitatea si productivitatea ecosistemelor, lucrare de dizertatie (iunie 2009).

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