|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note [Dutch]|
|Zerynthia rumina(Linnaeus, 1758) / Spanish festoon / Spaanse pijpbloemvlinder / Spanischer Osterluzeifalter / Proserpine.|
Distribution: North Africa, Iberian peninsular and S France.
Identification: This species can only be confused with the similar Southern Festoon, Z. polyxena. The range of the two species overlaps only in SE France. There are a number of differences, chief amongst them are:
- presence of blue on the hindwing of the Southern Festoon, polyxena.
- presence of extensive red on the forewing of the Spanish Festoon, rumina.
Flight time: Generally April and May although old specimens can be found occasionally in June. I received a fabulous photograph of a very fresh butterfly taken in September 2006 from a correspondent in S Spain so there appears to be the possibility of a very small second brood. In February 2009, I received a comment from Andalucia that the butterfly is common in spring and autumn.
Habitat: Flies in hills upto 2100m in N Africa but only to around 1000m in France. I've generally found it on grassland in scrubby areas, sometimes bordering habitation or cultivation. It does share some habitats with its close relative the Southern Festoon,
Z. polyxena in southern France. I found them both at one site in Var. Larvae take Aristolochiae (Birthworts).
Behaviour: Flight is fairly direct and gliding but not strong. Flies gently above the grasses, sometimes stopping frequently for nectar or for a rest low down on the leaves or twigs of a bush or tree or on warm rocks or bare earth.
Additional notes: The "dazzle" colour scheme completely breaks up the food-ness of this insect. It must be quite tricky for any potential predator to decide which part to attack!
The life stages of Z. rumina are discussed by Nardelli (1993; European Z. rumina) as well as Tarrier et al. (1994) and Binagot and Lartigue (1998) (African subspecies africana and tarrieri). Genitalia have been illustrated by Higgins (1975). For the classification of Spanish populations, see Sabariego and Martinez (1991). An extremely rare form, f. honnorati (Type locality: Digne, France) (reconstructed above), although often considered extinct since a hundred years ago, is still protected by law in France (Collins and Morris, 1985; Bernardi, 1991). The last official observation was 1991.
Z. rumina is distributed from southeast France (Italy border) to Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia (Higgins and Riley, 1970).
The nominal subspecies, Z. rumina rumina (Type locality: S. Europe)(= Z. r. lusitanica Bryk, 1932; Type localty: Portugal) is distributed in southern Spain and Portugal (Higgins and Riley, 1970). In addition to Z. r. medesicaste (Hoffmannsegg, 1803)(= Z. r. australis Esper, 1780; Type locality: ca. Nimes, S. France), other European subspecies are confined to Spain (Sabariego and Martinez, 1991); these include Z. r. castiliana Rühl, 1892 (Type locality: Castilia: S. Ildelfonso, Albarracin, Spain), Z. r. petheri Romei, 1927 (Type locality: Sierra Nevada and Malaga, Spain); Z. r. catalonica De Sagarra, 1930 (Type locality: Catalonia, Spain), Z. r. cantabricae Gomez-Bustillo, 1971 (Type locality: Puerto de Pozazal, Spain), Z. r. isabelae Sabariego and Huertas, 1976 (Type locality: Huelva prov., Spain), and Z. r. transcastiliana Sabariego, 1977 (Type locality: Spain). Most of these subspecies, however, are morphologically very similar and demonstrate great local variation, and of these maybe only 3 or 4 can be considered valid subspecies (Carbonell, unpublished). The majority of the African populations belong to Z. r. africana (Stichel, 1907) (Type locality: Algeria, Morocco) (= Z. r. mauretanica Schultz, 1908; Type locality: north Africa) (Tennent, 1996), although the (morphologically very similar) populations from Anti-Atlas Mountains in north Africa have been described as Z. r. tarrieri Binagot and Lartigue, 1998 (Type locality: Morocco) (Binagot and Lartigue, 1998).
Larval Food Plant
The larvae feed on Aristolochia pallida, A. baetica, A. longa, A. fontanesi, A. rotunda, and A. pistolochia (Bryk, 1934; Ackery, 1975; Acquier, 1981; Olivares Villegas et al., 1991; Tennent, 1996; Binagot and Lartigue 1998). A. clematitis, recorded by Bryk (1934) as a larval food plant for Zerynthia rumina, is very toxic and larvae die quickly upon feeding on it (Carbonell, personal observation).
roges, phlr has marked this note useful
Only registered TrekNature members may rate photo notes.