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Trichopoda pennipes


Trichopoda pennipes
Photo Information
Copyright: Melania Marchi (ikonta) Silver Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 21 W: 16 N: 172] (732)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2009-09-17
Categories: Insects
Camera: Canon 40D, Sigma 70mm f/2.8 EX DG Macro
Exposure: f/6.3, 1/250 seconds
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2010-08-24 5:52
Viewed: 3543
Points: 36
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order Diptera
Superfamily: Oestroidea
Family: Tachinidae
Subfamily: Phasiinae
Genus: Trichopoda (Feather-legged Flies)
Species: pennipes (Trichopoda pennipes)

Trichopoda pennipes is a tachinid parasitoid of members of the stink bug and leaffooted bug families, including the squash bug and green stink bug (Acrosternum hilare).
It has a wide distribution in both North and South America.
It occurs throughout much of the United States, and in the southern states its major hosts are the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) and leaffooted bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus).
It is sometimes refered to as the "feather-legged fly" because of the prominent fringe of feather-like bristles on its hind legs.

This distinctive and conspicuous fly is about the same size as a house fly, but is bright orange with a velvety black head and thorax.
It has dark legs with a fringe of short black hairs on the hind leg and yellow feet, large brown eyes and brown and black wings.
The tip of the female fly's abdomen is black.

The flies may be seen hovering over squash plants when searching for squash bugs to parasitize.
T. pennipes is highly attracted by an aggregation pheromone produced by male southern green stink bugs, which results in the males being parasitized at a consistently higher level than females.
Each female fly lays on average 100 eggs, which are placed singly on the body of a large nymph or adult bug.
Most of the small, white or gray, oval eggs are placed on the underside of the thorax or abdomen, but they can occur on almost any part of the bug.
Many eggs may be laid on the same host, but only one larva will survive in each bug.
The young larva that hatches from the egg bores directly into the host body.
The maggot feeds on the body fluids of the host for about two weeks, during which time it increases to a size almost equal to that of the body cavity of its host.
When it has completed its development, the cream-colored third instar maggot emerges from the bug between the posterior abdominal segments.
The bug dies after emergence of the fly, not from the parasitoid feeding, but from the mechanical injury to its body.
The maggot pupates about an inch down in the soil in a dark reddish-brown puparium formed from the last larval skin, and an adult fly emerges about two weeks later.
There can be three generations per year depending on location.

The fly overwinters as a second instar larva within the body of the overwintering host bug.
Adult flies emerge in late spring or early summer.
The only bugs large enough to parasitize at this time are overwintered adults.
Subsequent generations develop on both nymphs and adults of the next generation.

Adult flies feed on nectar, especially from plants such as wild carrot (Queen Anne's lace) and meadowsweet (Spiraea salicifolia).

The rate of parasitism can be as high as 93% on southern green stink bug and up to 80% on squash bug. But because the bugs continue to feed after parasitization, T. pennipes will not always prevent crop damage.
However, the reproductive organs of the host bug begin to atrophy when the parasitoid reaches the second instar, so pest population increase will be reduced somewhat.
The fly is most effective when it parasitizes nymphs, since 50% die before becoming adults and the remainder that become adults and overwinter will die before laying eggs.
The life history of the parasitoid and squash bug are not well synchronized, and host finding by the fly is not efficient, so T. pennipes is not able to maintain this pest at low densities.

Source:http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/kyf605.html

Trichopoda pennipes

Trichopoda pennipes č un dittero della famiglia Tachinidae, parassitoide della cimice verde Nezara viridula, originario del Sud America e introdotto in Italia intorno al 1960.
Questo parassitoide in America risulta essere particolarmente attivo nel controllo anche di Leptoglossus occidentalis, conosciuto come “cimicione delle conifere” o “cimice americana” un eterottero, appartenente alla famiglia dei Coreidi originario dell’America Settentrionale. Il “cimicione” č un insetto innocuo, l’unico inconveniente č rappresentato dal fatto che se toccati o molestati, gli esemplari adulti possono emettere un odore sgradevole prima di fuggire via.
A causa delle grandi invasioni che effettuano, si stanno adottando, anche in Italia, in via ancora sperimentale, in zone dove l’insetto č presente da diversi anni, diversi mezzi biotecnici e biologici come l’utilizzo di trappole di ferormoni di aggregazioni ed altri insetti, come appunto il nostro dittero Tachinide: Trichopoda Pennipes.

horias, marius-secan, paolo49, Miss_Piggy, siggi, manyee, flashpoint, ramthakur, maurydv, Amelia has marked this note useful
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Critiques [Translate]

  • Great 
  • horias Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 837 W: 58 N: 2084] (11033)
  • [2010-08-24 6:01]

Melania....what a great shot!
This Trichopoda pennipes is a fantastic sharpness fly, with great details and colors.
Congratulation!
Horia

Ciao Melania, sotto la tua lente anche il piů insignificante degli insetti diventa un piccolo capolavoro, tutto perfetto, esposizione, messa a fuoco, ottimi parametri di scatto che ci consentono di vedere questo dittero con fantastici dettagli, bella la resa dei colori, macro fantastica, bravissima, ciao Silvio

Mamma mia che spettacolo,una foto di classe straordinaria con tutto il meglio dei dettagli e dei colori,sono contento che ci sia una ragazza italiana su questo sito a tenere alti i colori del nostro paese...e con che qualita'!!!Complimenti anche per l'identificazione,buona giornata,Luciano

hello Melania
WAUWH this is a picture of SUPER class
great sharpness and beautiful colours with very good details
great pose with good soft BG.
very nice pose to see this fly very good
greeting lou

Amazing detail... Thanks,

Paul

Hello Melania,
Perfect shot with outstanding focus and excellent details.
Exceptional natural colours. Great composition with nice blurred background. Congratulation!
Marius.

Ciao Melania, che bella immagine con tutto perfetto. Pulizia, messa a fuoco e dettagli al massimo. Veramente molto brava. Ciao Paolo

Hallo Melania
Great macro with super end result. Details are well seen against the neutral green background especially the fine body hairs and beautiful details on the wings. I also like the centralized composition. Interesting and well detailed notes as well. Thanks for sharing. Best regards.
Anna

  • Great 
  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2010-08-24 12:51]

Hello Melania,
Excellent capture of this Trichopoda pennipes sitting nicely on the flower. Great sharpness, good light and fine colours. It looks very good against the plain soft background.Best regards Siggi

Hello Melania,
Fantastic macro. Impressive colours and sharpness. Composition is perfect! Cheers,
Catherine

EXCELENTE


solo queda esto por decir......

gracias por compartir una linda imagen

  • Great 
  • manyee Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3090 W: 230 N: 6774] (23770)
  • [2010-08-24 21:52]

A warm welcome to TN!
Wow, Melania, this is a fantastic shot.
A rare view of all 4 wings open, shown in excellent sharpness.
The exposure is perfect. A wonderful shot.
Congratulations.
Thanks for sharing.

Un trabajo casi perfecto melania. Una gran profundidad que me advierte que algo estoy haciendo mal yo ya que con más f consigo menos profundidad y eso es síntoma de que no se trabajar la luz.
Buenos y reales colores.
Saludos: Josep Ignasi.

A stunning shot, Melania.
Hearty welcome to TN!
A quick glance at your brief portfolio suggests great talent.
This picture of a Fly is simply outstanding in terms of focus, colours, details and composition.
Thanks for sharing it and all the best.
Ram

Ciao Melania,
una bellissima macro con un eccellente punto di ripresa per mostrare al meglio e con ottima definizione e incredibili dettagli le caratteristiche di questo insetto, eccellente il taglio compositivo
Grazie e complimenti
Ciao Maurizio

ciao Melania!
gli sei piombata sopra a questo dittero(che ho fotografato anche io diverse volte..) che si distingue per gli "speroni" sulle zampe e per la posa a testa in giu' ad ali stese..macro curatissima con cromatismo e dettaglio
perfetti

grazie ciao sERGIO

What a beauty, Melania! Absolutely superb colours, with amazing detail as well. This is just wonderful photography.

Greetings, Amelia

  • Great 
  • vanda Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 338 W: 25 N: 754] (3673)
  • [2010-08-27 9:24]

Ciao Melania!
Fantastica macro con nitidezza e particolari dell'insetto eccellenti!!
Fantastico POV : si vede che č ancora in aria e che si sta posando. Splendido sfondo sfumato e composizione perfetta.
Complimenti, bfravissima.
Ciao! Vanda

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