|Copyright: Ahmet Yasin Guler (ayasinguler)
|Date Taken: 2010-10-23|
|Camera: Nikon D3000 SLR, 18 - 55|
|Exposure: f/5.6, 1/250 seconds|
|More Photo Info: [view]|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2011-01-19 12:51|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Bufo bufo(Linnaeus, 1758) |
Taxonomic Notes: Bufo bufo is the central member of the Bufo bufo species complex. The systematics of this complex remain unclear. Until recently Bufo verrucosissimus was considered to be a subspecies of Bufo bufo. The taxonomic status of populations allocated to Bufo bufo in Turkey is unclear and requires further investigation.
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Population: Although this species is generally common over much of its range, some localized declines have been observed.
Population Trend: Stable
Habitat and Ecology: This is a widespread and adaptable species present in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, groves, bushlands, meadows, arid areas, parks and gardens. It is usually in damp areas with dense vegetation, and large open areas are generally avoided. The species spawns and larval development takes place in still waters and slow-moving parts of rivers and streams. It is present in many modified habitats.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Major Threat(s): There are generally no major threats to this widespread and common species. Populations might be locally impacted through deforestation, drainage of wetlands, pollution, agricultural intensification, urbanization, desertification, mortality on roads (migrating animals), and persecution. In parts of the former Soviet Union it is collected in small numbers for the pet trade. This species can be affected by the increase of UV-B radiation (Lizana and Pedraza 1998). Relict populations in montane areas in Lebanon might be threatened by the impacts of global warming. Chytridiomycosis is a potential threat to the species and has been reported in some Spanish and UK populations. It has declined extensively in Spain due to habitat loss and aridity. One subspecies in Spain, B.b. gredosicola, is threatened by predation by otters and competition with the frog Rana perezi, both of which appear to have moved into higher altitudes as a result of climatic warming. In the United Kingdom the species is increasingly suffering from habitat fragmentation and some unexplained declines have occurred.
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