|Copyright: Volkan Eroglu (Gramineae)
|Date Taken: 2003-01-15|
|Camera: EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY|
|Exposure: f/6.3, 1/350 seconds|
|More Photo Info: [view]|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2011-02-02 1:00|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
Bombus (Thoracobombus) zonatus Smith, 1854
Bombus zonatus has a very characteristic coat and can be easily and reliably determined on this character alone. Many old data are referred to as "Bombus eversmanni".
In Anatolia, Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) report altitudes from 150 to 1950 m (n = 414), with 80 % of the observations between 1060 and 1660 m. Reinig regards B. zonatus as an open-field species. In Anatolia, we observed it in steppes and woody steppes. According to Reinig (1972), B. zonatus coexists most often with B. terrestris, B. argillaceus and B. niveatus vorticosus. According to Rasmont & Flagothier (1996), Bombus zonatus is a species of the hill stage, together with B. pascuorum, B. argillaceus, B. terrestris, B. sylvarum, B. lucorum, B. niveatus (as main species).
Özbek (2000) give 49 foraging species. We found 47 flowers species: Anchusa leptophylla (43 observations), Centaurea solstitialis (32), Boraginaceae (19), Anchusa officinalis (16), Stachys byzantina (15), Stachys cretica (15), Carduae sp. (10), Ononis spinosa (10), Echium italicum (7), Salvia verticillata (7), Stachys germanica (7), Anchusa undulata (6), Echium plantagineum (6), Medicago sativa (6), Leguminosae (5), Anchusa azurea (4), Carduus acanthoides (4), Coronilla varia (3), Marrubium parviflorum (3), Salvia virgata (3), Anchusa sp. (2), Anchusa strigosa (2), Carduus sp. (2), Centaurea iberica (2), Cirsium arvense (2), Melilotus officinalis (2), Ononis sp. (2), Stachys iberica (2), Stachys sp. (2), Trifolium pratense (2), Vicia sp. (2) and one observation on 16 other species. Preferred families are : Boraginaceae (108 observations among which 73 on Anchusa spp.), Compositae (57, among which 37 on Centaurea spp.) Labiatae (56, among which 42 on Stachys spp.) and Leguminosae (36).
[The left-hand and middle]
Bombus (Bombus) terrestris (L., 1758)
Bombus terrestris may be mistaken for other species of the same subgenus. Queens, however, are rather easily recognized : their coat is shorter and their yellow stripes darker than in B. lucorum, B. cryptarum (and B. magnus absent from Turkey).
While B. terrestris is differentiated in several subspecies in Western Europe; it is far less polymorphic in the oriental part of its distribution. There is no perceptible difference between the populations from the Balkan, Asia Minor, the Ural and the mountains of central Asia: they all belong to the subspecies dalmatinus (Aytekin et al. 2003; Rasmont et al. 2008).
B. terrestris is common in a large part of Europe and has been successfully domesticated since 1987. It has therefore been dealt with in many publications (see Rasmont et al. 2008 for a summary).
In Turkey, as in the whole Mediterranean area, B. terrestris is the only bumblebee able to live in winter. While it shows 2 or 3 generations in S France (Rasmont et al. 2008), in Antalya, there is only one (Güler et al. 2008). In the Akçakoca surrounding (Bolu region), we found however new founding queens and the workers of a former generation foraging together as soon as end February and this could be the indication that it could be 2 generations along the Black Sea coast.
In Anatolia Rasmont & Flagothier (1996) found B. terrestris form 0 to 2200 m and 80 % between 2 and 1510 m. It represents 75% of all the bumblebees specimens below 500 m in the Taurus mountains (Kaftanoğlu, 2000).
Bombus terrestris is a highly polylectic bumblebee, collecting from hundreds of different flower species. However, we have relatively few data about Turkey. Özbek (1997) mentions 62 favorite plant taxa, among which Vitex agnus-castus L. is the late-summer staple for the whole Aegean region. In Anatolia, we observed 29 visited plant species, mainly Symphytum asperum Lepechin (49 cases), Anchusa officinalis L. (44), and Echinops orientalis Trautv. (40).
For the winter generation, the main choice is clearly for Arbutus unedo in various Mediterranean countries. We have thousands winter observations on this plant in most Aegean islands. Güler et al. (2008) also give Arbutus andrachne, Eriobotrya japonica and Clematis cirrhosa as main plants for winter.
Onopordum sibthorpianum Boiss. & Heldr. [TR:] Eşek dikeni, Eşek osurtan
Biennial, 25-100 cm, sparsely to densely arachnoid. Stem scarcely branched above, leafy up to 5-10 cm beneath capitula, winged throughout; wings 2-4, narrow, spinose and sinuate; spines 2-10 rom at tips of triangular lobes with median nerve. Basal leaves oblong-Ianceolate, pinnatipartite, becoming subulate and pinnatilobed upwards, primary lobes distinctly triangular with prominent nerve, lobules with less distinct shape and nerve, all ending in 2-10 rom spines. Capitula on winged peduncles, sometimes wings represented only by spines. Involucre depressed-globose, 1'5-2,5 x 2-4 cm (excl. spines), with flat to concave base; phyllaries slender, 3-5 rom broad near base, abruptly tapering into 1-3 cm spines with 3-10 rom yellow tips, glabrous to slightly arachnoid; outer and median phyllaries reflexed to patent, inner erect. Flowers as long as inner phyllaries; touter phyllaries that are densely arachnoid at base and loosely imbricate; pappus hairs scabrous or barbellate, lateral projections 0,5-1'5 x as long as rachis width.
Habitats: Clearings inforest, steppe and fallow fields.
Altitude: 1000-1800 m.
References: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands Vol: 5; http://www.atlashymenoptera.net
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