|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)|
French: Goéland brun German: Heringsmöwe Spanish: Gaviota sombría
Taxonomy:Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden.
Closely related to L. argentatus, and in past sometimes considered conspecific, but in most areas of sympatry the two are reproductively isolated; molecular evidence separates present species from L. argentatus and L. cachinnans. Very complex systematics involving several of the races. Some evidence that heuglini overlaps nominate fuscus in range, perhaps without interbreeding; may merit specific status as L. heuglini, which may even include form vegae (currently treated as a subspecies of L. smithsonianus). Form barabensis has been treated as a race variously of present species, of L. argentatus, of L. cachinnans and of L. heuglini (when last-mentioned treated as a separate species), or as a separate species, L. barabensis, or considered to be a hybrid form not worthy of recognition at all (despite distinctive characters). Described form antelius (from W Siberia) is regarded as a synonym of heuglini; proposed form taimyrensis (Yenisey and Taymyr Peninsula) often considered inseparable from heuglini and, pending further molecular study, this position taken here. (See also L. argentatus). Five subspecies currently recognized.
Subspecies and Distribution
L. f. graellsii A. E. Brehm, 1857 – Lesser Black-backed Gull – Iceland, Faeroes, British Is, Netherlands, France and Iberia; winters from SW Europe to W Africa, and has increased dramatically on Atlantic coasts of America.
L. f. intermedius Schiøler, 1922 – Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, coastal Norway and SW Sweden, with isolated population in NE Spain (Ebro Delta); winters mostly in W Europe and W Africa.
L. f. fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 – Baltic Gull – Baltic Sea and Finland E to White Sea; winters mostly in Africa and SW Asia.
L. f. heuglini Bree, 1876 – Heuglin's Gull – N Siberia from S Kola Peninsula E to Taymyr Peninsula; winters from Middle East S to E Africa and E to India, E China and S Korea.
L. f. barabensis H. C. Johansen, 1960 – Steppe Gull – C Asian steppes; winters mostly in SW Asia.
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