|Copyright: Nagesh Vannur (nagesh)
|Date Taken: 2015-01-14|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2015-01-15 7:45|
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The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical, subtropical and temperate Sub-Saharan Africa, southern and eastern Asia, and Australasia. White-eyes inhabit most tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Guinea. Discounting some widespread members of the genus Zosterops, most species are endemic to single islands or archipelagos. The silvereye, Zosterops lateralis, naturally colonised New Zealand, where it is known as the "wax-eye" or tauhou ("stranger"), from 1855. The silvereye has also been introduced to the Society Islands in French Polynesia, while the Japanese white-eye has been introduced to Hawaii.
White-eyes are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage being generally greenish olive above, and pale grey below. Some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their common name implies, many species have a conspicuous ring of tiny white feathers around their eyes. The scientific name of the group also reflects this latter feature, being derived from the Ancient Greek for "girdle-eye". They have rounded wings and strong legs. Like many other nectivorous birds, they have slender, pointed bills, and brush-tipped tongues. The size ranges up to 15 cm (6 inches) in length.
All the species of white-eyes are sociable, forming large flocks which only separate on the approach of the breeding season. They build tree nests and lay two to four unspotted pale blue eggs. Though mainly insectivorous, they eat nectar and fruits of various kinds. The silvereye can be a problem in Australian vineyards, through piercing the grape allowing infection or insect damage to follow.
The white-eyes were long considered a distinct family Zosteropidae because they are rather homogeneous in morphology and ecology, leading to little adaptive radiation and divergence.
The genus Apalopteron, formerly placed in the Meliphagidae, was transferred to the white-eyes on genetic evidence. It differs much in appearance from the typical white-eyes, Zosterops, but is approached by some Micronesian taxa; its colour pattern is fairly unique save the imperfect white-eye-ring.
In 2003, Alice Cibois published the results of her study of mtDNA cytochrome b and 12S/16S rRNA sequence data. According to her results, the white-eyes were likely to form a clade also containing the yuhinas, which were until then placed with the Old World babblers, a large "wastebin" family. Previous molecular studies (e.g. Sibley & Ahlquist 1990, Barker et al. 2002) had together with the morphological evidence tentatively placed white-eyes as the Timaliidae's closest relatives already. But some questions remained, mainly because the white-eyes are all very similar birds in habitus and habits, while the Old World babblers are very diverse (because, as we now know, the group as formerly defined was polyphyletic).
Combined with the yuhinas (and possibly other Timaliidae), the limits of the white-eye clade to the "true" Old World babblers becomes indistinct. Therefore, the current (early 2007) opinion weighs towards merging the group into the Timaliidae, perhaps as a subfamily ("Zosteropinae"). Few white-eyes have been thoroughly studied with the new results in mind, however, and almost all of these are from Zosterops which even at this point appears over-lumped. Also, many "Old World babblers" remain of unresolved relationships. Whether there can be a clear delimitation of a white-eye subfamily or even a young or emerging family is a question that requires a more comprehensive study of both this group and Timaliidae to resolve.(Jønsson & Fjeldså 2006)
For example, a revision of the yuhinas and the genus Stachyris (Cibois et al. 2002), based on the same genes as Cibois (2003), revealed that the Philippine species placed in the latter genus by some were actually yuhinas. However, when the review by Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) was published, no study had tried to propose a phylogeny for the newly defined yuhinas including the white-eyes. Therefore, Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) give a rather misleading phylogeny for the group. It appears as if the yuhinas are polyphyletic, with the white-collared yuhina being closer to the ancestor of the Zosterops white-eyes than to other yuhinas including the species moved from Stachyris (Cibois et al. 2002).
Fernando Po speirops, Speirops brunneus
Principe speirops, Speirops leucophoeus
Black-capped speirops, Speirops lugubris
Cameroon speirops, Speirops melanocephalus
Genus Zosterops - typical white-eyes (some 75 species, 1-3 recently extinct; polyphyletic)
Genus Rukia - Eastern Carolines white-eyes
Long-billed white-eye, Rukia longirostra
Truk white-eye, Rukia ruki
Golden white-eye, Cleptornis marchei
Rufescent white-eye, Tephrozosterops stalkeri
Madanga, Madanga ruficollis
Crested white-eye, Lophozosterops dohertyi
Black-masked white-eye, Lophozosterops goodfellowi
Mees's white-eye, Lophozosterops javanicus
Grey-hooded white-eye, Lophozosterops pinaiae
Streaky-headed white-eye, Lophozosterops squamiceps
Cream-browed white-eye, Lophozosterops superciliaris
Pygmy white-eye, Oculocincta squamifrons
Thick-billed white-eye, Heleia crassirostris
Spot-breasted white-eye, Heleia muelleri
Mountain blackeye, Chlorocharis emiliae
Sanford's white-eye, Woodfordia lacertosa
Bare-eyed white-eye, Woodfordia superciliosa
Genus Megazosterops - sometimes placed in Rukia
Giant white-eye, Megazosterops palauensis
Cinnamon ibon, Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus
Genus Apalopteron - Bonin white-eye (formerly Bonin honeyeater)
If the white-eyes are maintained as a separate family or subfamily, this yuhinas would have to be included there too.
Genus Yuhina - yuhinas
White-collared yuhina, Yuhina diademata
White-naped yuhina, Yuhina bakeri
Whiskered yuhina, Yuhina flavicollis
Burmese yuhina, Yuhina humilis
Stripe-throated yuhina, Yuhina gularis
Rufous-vented yuhina, Yuhina occipitalis
Taiwan yuhina, Yuhina brunneiceps
Black-chinned yuhina, Yuhina nigrimenta
Striated yuhina, Yuhina castaniceps
Indochinese yuhina, Yuhina torqueola
Chestnut-crested yuhina, Yuhina everetti
Genus Dasycrotapha - formerly in Stachyris; tentatively placed here
Flame-templed babbler, Dasycrotapha speciosa
Mindanao pygmy babbler, Dasycrotapha plateni
Visayan pygmy babbler, Dasycrotapha pygmaea
Genus Sterrhoptilus - formerly in Stachyris; tentatively placed here
Golden-crowned babbler (or yuhina), Sterrhoptilus dennistouni
Black-crowned babbler (or yuhina), Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitata
Rusty-crowned babbler (or yuhina), Sterrhoptilus capitalis
Genus Zosterornis - formerly in Stachyris; tentatively placed here
Chestnut-faced babbler (or yuhina), Zosterornis whiteheadi
Luzon striped babbler (or yuhina), Zosterornis striatus
Panay striped babbler (or yuhina), Zosterornis latistriatus
Negros striped babbler (or yuhina), Zosterornis nigrorum
Palawan striped babbler (or yuhina), Zosterornis hypogrammicus
Lindsey, Terence (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. p. 207. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
Alström, Per; Ericson, Per G.P.; Olsson, Urban & Sundberg, Per (2006): Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015 PMID 16054402
Barker, F. Keith; Barrowclough, George F. & Groth, Jeff G. (2002): A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc. B 269(1488): 295-308. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1883 PDF fulltext
Cibois, Alice (2003): Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of Babblers (Timaliidae). Auk 120(1): 1-20. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[0035:MDPOBT]2.0.CO;2 HTML fulltext without images[dead link]
Cibois, Alice; Kalyakin, Mikhail V.; Lian-Xian, Han & Pasquet, Eric (2002): Molecular phylogenetics of babblers (Timaliidae): revaluation of the genera Yuhina and Stachyris. J. Avian Biol. 33: 380–390. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2002.02882.x (HTML abstract)
del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Christie D. (editors). (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2
Jønsson, Knud A. & Fjeldså, Jon (2006): A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35(2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x (HTML abstract)
Mees, G. F. (1957): A Systematic Review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae Parts I. Zoologische Verhandelingen 35:1–204 PDF
Mees, G. F. (1961): A Systematic Review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae Parts II. Zoologische Verhandelingen 50:1-168 PDF
Mees, G. F. (1969): A Systematic Review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae Parts III. Zoologische Verhandelingen 102:1-390 PDF
Mees, G F (1953): Article: An attempt at a natural classification of certain Zosteropidae of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Zoologische Mededelingen 32:57-68 PDF
Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward (1990): Phylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
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Location: The Western Ghats are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of Indian peninsula. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.
The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species and 288 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
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