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The other side


The other side
Photo Information
Copyright: Giorgio Mercuri (Photoslave) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 141 W: 0 N: 55] (1199)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2008-03-02
Categories: Insects
Exposure: f/4.9, 1/125 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2008-03-16 14:11
Viewed: 5854
Points: 20
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Another POV of the same butterfly posted yesterday.

Hypolimnas bolina

Infos from Wikipedia:

The Great Eggfly (Hypolimnas bolina), also called Blue Moon Butterfly in New Zealand or Common Eggfly, is a species of nymphalid butterfly.

Systematics
Hypolimnas bolina is divided into eight subspecies:

Hypolimnas bolina bolina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Hypolimnas bolina nerina (Fabricius, 1775)
Hypolimnas bolina montrouzieri (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina pulchra (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina pallescens (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina lisianassa (Cramer)
Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Drury, 1773)
Hypolimnas bolina kezia (Butler)

Race bolina

The Great Eggfly is a black-bodied butterfly with a wingspan of about 7–8½ cm. The species has a high degree of sexual dimorphism. The female is mimetic with multiple morphs.

Male

The upper side of the wings are jet black, offset with three pairs of white spots – two on the forewing and one on the hind. These white spots are surrounded by purple iridescence. In addition, the upper side of the hind wing bears a series of small white dots.

Female

The upper side of the wings of the female is a brownish black and does not have any spots like those of the male. The edges bear white markings which are similar to those of the Common Indian Crow.

Distribution

Great Eggflies are found in Madagascar in the west, through to South and Southeast Asia, South Pacific islands (French Polynesia, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu) and occurs in parts of Australia, Japan and New Zealand.

Habitat

The Great Eggfly is a fairly common butterfly found in lightly wooded country, deciduous forests, thick and moist scrub and the greener parts of human habitation.

Mimicry

To the west the female is monomorphic, mimicking species of the oriental and Australasian danaid genus Euploea. Eastwards H. bolina is frequently polymorphic and most forms are then non-mimetic. In areas where it resembles Euploea the butterfly has usually been designated a Batesian mimic.

Life cycle and ecology

Great Eggflies are known for maternal care, with the females guarding leaves where eggs have been laid. Males are also very territorial. The female hovers over a plant to check for ants which will eat her eggs. After selecting a plant which has no ants on it, she lays at least one but often two to five eggs on the undersides of the leaves.

Host plants

Race bolina breeds on Fleuria interrupta, Sida rhombifolia, Elatostemma cuneatum, Portulaca oleracea, Laportea interrupta, Triumfetta pentandra, and Asystasia species.

Other hosts include Elatostema cuneatum, Fleurya interrupta,Pseuderanthemum variabile and Synedrella nodiflora.

Eggs
The eggs are a pale, glassy green with longitudinal ridges except on the top.

Caterpillar

After about four days the eggs hatch. The caterpillars immediately disperse. They are black with an orange head. The last segment is also orange. The head bears a pair of long branched black horns. The body surface is also covered with long, branched, orangish black spines. These spines look whitish and transparent immediately after moulting, but soon become the usual orange. In later instars the spiracles are surrounded by thin, dirty orange rings. Infection by Wolbachia bacteria is known to exclusively kill male specimens.

Pupa

The pupa is suspended by just one point. It is brown with a grey tinge on the wings. The abdominal segments have distinct tubercles. The surface of the pupa is rough. The butterfly emerges after seven to eight days as pupae (female development is always a bit longer).

Recent evolutionary changes

On the Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii, a parasite (probably Wolbachia) had been killing the male members of Hypolimnas bolina. The problem was so severe that by the year 2001, males made up only 1% of the population. However, in 2007, it was reported that within a span of just 10 generations (less than a year), the males had evolved to develop immunity to the parasite, and the male population increased to nearly 40%.

Infos from Wikipedia:

The Great Eggfly (Hypolimnas bolina), also called Blue Moon Butterfly in New Zealand or Common Eggfly, is a species of nymphalid butterfly.

Systematics
Hypolimnas bolina is divided into eight subspecies:

Hypolimnas bolina bolina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Hypolimnas bolina nerina (Fabricius, 1775)
Hypolimnas bolina montrouzieri (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina pulchra (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina pallescens (Butler)
Hypolimnas bolina lisianassa (Cramer)
Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Drury, 1773)
Hypolimnas bolina kezia (Butler)

Race bolina

The Great Eggfly is a black-bodied butterfly with a wingspan of about 7–8½ cm. The species has a high degree of sexual dimorphism. The female is mimetic with multiple morphs.

Male

The upper side of the wings are jet black, offset with three pairs of white spots – two on the forewing and one on the hind. These white spots are surrounded by purple iridescence. In addition, the upper side of the hind wing bears a series of small white dots.

Female

The upper side of the wings of the female is a brownish black and does not have any spots like those of the male. The edges bear white markings which are similar to those of the Common Indian Crow.

Distribution

Great Eggflies are found in Madagascar in the west, through to South and Southeast Asia, South Pacific islands (French Polynesia, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu) and occurs in parts of Australia, Japan and New Zealand.

Habitat

The Great Eggfly is a fairly common butterfly found in lightly wooded country, deciduous forests, thick and moist scrub and the greener parts of human habitation.

Mimicry

To the west the female is monomorphic, mimicking species of the oriental and Australasian danaid genus Euploea. Eastwards H. bolina is frequently polymorphic and most forms are then non-mimetic. In areas where it resembles Euploea the butterfly has usually been designated a Batesian mimic.

Life cycle and ecology

Great Eggflies are known for maternal care, with the females guarding leaves where eggs have been laid. Males are also very territorial. The female hovers over a plant to check for ants which will eat her eggs. After selecting a plant which has no ants on it, she lays at least one but often two to five eggs on the undersides of the leaves.

Host plants

Race bolina breeds on Fleuria interrupta, Sida rhombifolia, Elatostemma cuneatum, Portulaca oleracea, Laportea interrupta, Triumfetta pentandra, and Asystasia species.

Other hosts include Elatostema cuneatum, Fleurya interrupta,Pseuderanthemum variabile and Synedrella nodiflora.

Eggs
The eggs are a pale, glassy green with longitudinal ridges except on the top.

Caterpillar

After about four days the eggs hatch. The caterpillars immediately disperse. They are black with an orange head. The last segment is also orange. The head bears a pair of long branched black horns. The body surface is also covered with long, branched, orangish black spines. These spines look whitish and transparent immediately after moulting, but soon become the usual orange. In later instars the spiracles are surrounded by thin, dirty orange rings. Infection by Wolbachia bacteria is known to exclusively kill male specimens.

Pupa

The pupa is suspended by just one point. It is brown with a grey tinge on the wings. The abdominal segments have distinct tubercles. The surface of the pupa is rough. The butterfly emerges after seven to eight days as pupae (female development is always a bit longer).

Recent evolutionary changes

On the Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii, a parasite (probably Wolbachia) had been killing the male members of Hypolimnas bolina. The problem was so severe that by the year 2001, males made up only 1% of the population. However, in 2007, it was reported that within a span of just 10 generations (less than a year), the males had evolved to develop immunity to the parasite, and the male population increased to nearly 40%.

pablominto, mariki, Silvio2006, maurydv, anel, Alex99, izler, vanderschelden has marked this note useful
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ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To lousat: GraziePhotoslave 1 03-16 15:38
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Critiques [Translate]

Hello Giorgio,
So you spent your vacation photographing butterflies, great!
This is a fine specimen, silky crisp details in the wing and good colour reproduction...
A well balanced composition!
Greetings,
Pablo -

  • Great 
  • lousat Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
  • [2008-03-16 15:08]
  • [+]

Vai Giorgio!! Questa foto e' uno spettacolo,ha dei dettagli e dei colori veramente eccezionali,sara' la luce delle Maldive...beh complimenti vivissimi,e' un grande scatto,ciao ,Luciano

Excellent details and composition! Very clear and beautiful light!
TFS

Bellissima immagine, ottimi POV e DOF, elegante composizione, molto buoni i dettagli e magnifiche le sfumature dei colori. Complimenti. Ciao Maurizio

  • Great 
  • anel Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 3053 W: 3 N: 8715] (40574)
  • [2008-03-17 1:04]

Bonjour Giorgio,
très belle présentation de ce magnifique papillon des Maldives. la composition est excellente, les couleurs de grande beauté. merci aussi pour la notice instructive, peut-être un peu longue.
Bonne journée
Anne

Hello Giorgio,

Excellent composition. Very good POV and DOF. Superb sharpness and wonderful detail. Good light and wonderful colours.
Cheers,
Mariki

  • Great 
  • Alex99 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4072 W: 133 N: 7096] (23735)
  • [2008-03-17 9:58]

Hi Giorgio.
What a pictorial and colourful picture you have taken. Amazing specimen of the butterfly, wonderful dry plants with similar colouration and superb green BG created by fresh leaves. This is wonderful set of objects for superb picture. Bravo.
Alexei.

Bella anche di lato, Giorgio, sembra laminata, grazie per avercela mostrata anche di fianco, ottima macro, bravo, ciao Silvio

  • Great 
  • izler Gold Star Critiquer [C: 1387 W: 3 N: 9] (44)
  • [2008-03-18 10:09]

hello Giorgio
wonderful macro photo of this beautiful and interesting butterfly
i like composition, point of view, blurry background, lighting, colours, sharpness, details and informative note
thanks for sharing
regards
izler

Hi Giorgio,
A looong note:-)
Image is sharp and well composed.
Good work.
TFS
Annick

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