|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|While visiting the Etosha game reserve last December, I came upon two lone Hyaena’s basking in the sun just past 07:00am. After letting me get some good shots of them, they got up and started trotting towards a dense bush ± 1km from where we were. I followed them and to my surprise I noticed more Hyaenas from different locations on the plain going to the same bush. From there-on the pack became my main focus for the next few days. If I was a bit late due to visiting another area in Etosha, I drove to the specific area about 10:00am and called the whole pack (with Hyaena calls) from their den and just photographed away.|
I hope you enjoy this photograph and would appreciate honest comments/critiques.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena or tiger wolf, is a species of hyena native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals. The species is however experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The species may have originated in Asia, and once ranged throughout Europe for at least one million years until the end of the Late Pleistocene. The spotted hyena is the largest member of the Hyaenidae, and is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build, its rounded ears, its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt, its more dual purposed dentition, its fewer nipples and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female. It is the only mammalian species to lack an external vaginal opening.
The spotted hyena is the most social of the Carnivora in that it has the largest group sizes and most complex social behaviours. Its social organisation is unlike that of any other Carnivore, bearing closer resemblance to that of cercopithecine primates (baboons and macaques) with respect to group-size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, the social system of the spotted hyena is openly competitive rather than cooperative, with access to kills, mating opportunities and the time of dispersal for males depending on the ability to dominate other clan-members. Females provide only for their own cubs rather than assist each other, and males display no paternal care. Spotted hyena society is matriarchal; females are larger than males, and dominate them.
The spotted hyena is a highly successful animal, being the most common large carnivore in Africa. Its success is due in part to its adaptability and opportunism; it is both an efficient hunter and a scavenger, with the capacity to eat and digest skin, bone and other animal waste. In functional terms, the spotted hyena makes the most efficient use of animal matter of all African carnivores. The spotted hyena displays greater plasticity in its hunting and foraging behaviour than other African carnivores; it hunts alone, in small parties of 2–5 individuals or in large groups. During a hunt, spotted hyenas often run through ungulate herds in order to select an individual to attack. Once selected, their prey is chased over long distance, often several kilometres, at speeds of up to 60 km/h.
The spotted hyena has a long history of interaction with humanity; depictions of the species exist from the Upper Paleolithic period, with carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves. The species has a largely negative reputation in both Western culture and African folklore. In the former, the species is mostly regarded as ugly and cowardly, while in the latter, it is viewed as greedy, gluttonous, stupid, and foolish, yet powerful and potentially dangerous. The majority of Western perceptions on the species can be found in the writings of Aristotle and Pliny the Elder, though in relatively unjudgemental form. Explicit, negative judgements occur in the Physiologus, where the animal is depicted as a hermaphrodite and grave robber. The IUCN's hyena specialist group identifies the spotted hyena's negative reputation as detrimental to the species' continued survival, both in captivity and the wild.
Etymology, discovery and naming
The spotted hyena's scientific name Crocuta, was once widely thought to be derived from the Latin loanword crocutus, which translates as "saffron-coloured one", in reference to the animal's fur colour. This was proven to be incorrect, as the correct spelling of the loanword would have been Crocāta, and the word was never used in that sense by Graeco-Roman sources. Crocuta actually comes from the Greek word Κροκόττας (Krokottas), which is derived from the Sanskrit koṭṭhâraka, which in turn originates from kroshṭuka (both of which were originally meant to signify the golden jackal). The earliest recorded mention of Κροκόττας is from Strabo's Geographica, where the animal is described as a mix of wolf and dog native to Ethiopia.
From antiquity till the Renaissance, the spotted and striped hyena were either assumed to be the same species, or distinguished purely on geographical, rather than physical grounds. Hiob Ludolf, in his Historia aethiopica, was the first to clearly distinguish the Crocuta from Hyaena on account of physical, as well as geographical grounds, though he never had any first hand experience of the species, having gotten his accounts from an Ethiopian intermediary. Confusion still persisted over the exact taxonomic nature of the hyena family in general, with most European travelers in Ethiopia referring to hyenas as "wolves". This partly stems from the Amharic word for hyena, ጅብ (djibb), which derives from the Arabic word ذئب (dhi'b), meaning "wolf".
The first detailed first-hand descriptions of the spotted hyena by Europeans come from Willem Bosman and Peter Kolben. Bosman, a Dutch tradesman who worked for the Dutch West India Company at the Gold Coast (modern day Ghana) from 1688–1701, wrote of "Jakhals, of Boshond" (jackals or woodland dogs) whose physical descriptions match the spotted hyena. Kolben, a German mathematician and astronomer who worked for the Dutch East India Company in the Cape of Good Hope from 1705–1713, described the spotted hyena in great detail, but referred to it as a "Tigerwolf", because the settlers in southern Africa did not know of hyenas, and thus labelled them as "wolves".
Bosman and Kolben's descriptions went largely unnoticed until in 1771, when the Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant, in his Synopsis of Quadrupeds, used the descriptions, as well as his personal experience with a captive specimen, as a basis for consistently differentiating the spotted hyena from the striped. The description given by Pennant was precise enough to be included by Johann Erxleben in his Systema regni animalis by simply translating Pennant's text into Latin. Crocuta was finally recognised as a separate genus from Hyaena in 1828.
Local and indigenous names
Several languages of Africa lack species specific names for hyenas: for example, the spotted and striped species have identical names in Dioula, Swahili, Malinké, Mňoré, Ngambaye, Oulof and Fula. In other languages, other species may simply be termed "small spotted hyena", such as in Swahili, where the spotted hyena is termed fisi and the aardwolf fisi ndogo.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CeltickRanger, deons, aruntp, maaciejka, Hormon_Manyer, bungbing, Mamagolo2, Argus, Miss_Piggy has marked this note useful
Only registered TrekNature members may rate photo notes.
- [2013-01-20 12:24]
Prachtige foto van deze hyena, genomen vanuit een schitterend laag standpunt in uitstekende scherpte en in mooi licht en natuurlijke kleuren.
Excellent close-up shot of the spotted hyena,
fine POV at its level, fine DOF and the way
it is framed, beautiful light, excellent focus,
sharpness, and details, TFS
Great photo Carl! Nice pose, very good composition and wonderful lighting. The sharpness is impressive!
- [2013-01-20 22:08]
Nicely posed photo of the hyena.
The image is sharp and shows lots of detail with a pleasing DOF.
- [2013-01-20 23:07]
Excellent wild life image. good closeup and interesting framing. the species is unique in appearanace and is majestic. tfs.
Good portrait of this hyena. Good expression of the animal.
- [2013-01-21 8:16]
Spotted Hyaena nice presentation ..
Great sharp detailed presentation of this Spotted Hyaena in beautiful natural colours.
deze foto is wel heel erg scherp!
super details te zien en mooie natuurlijke kleuren
bedankt gr lou
excellent composition. Nice natural colours. Perfect point of view.
Thanks for sharing,
- [2013-01-21 15:34]
Hi Carl,magnificent capture of this iena in a relaxing moment,what a pose and what a quality,perfect exposure,details and colors,i like the eyes looking for something...Have a nice day and thanks,Luciano
- [2013-01-21 16:05]
Great capture of this spotted hyena.
This photo allows us to appreciate an animal that is not naturally likeable and I love that.
Very beautiful light, nice composition and very pleasant posture.
I've yet to make such a photo of this animal!
- [2013-01-23 4:39]
This is what I was waiting for!
7D with that lens and perfect iso settings and exposure just give this superlative pictures,
So technically perfect but also very nice low pov, perfect compo and dof
Beautiful composition, the hyaena perfectly fills the frame, no out of focus foreground, the subject's pin sharp, the uninteresting background's mish-mashed perfectly (excellent DoF). Besides all these, I like the sepia tone of the pic very much. Absolutely top class job! Bravo!
Best regards, László
A very beautiful picture of this Hyena, lovely highlighted eye, excellent sharpness details, and the Hyena stands out very well against the background, a very well captured,
Thanks for sharing and have a very nice weekend,
What a beautiful image of this hyena. Sounds like you had a lot of fun. Great composition and sharpness with beautiful natural colours. Great detailed note. Excellent!
Have a great weekend.
- [2013-01-27 12:50]
A fine lowPOV capture of this resting Spotted Hyena.
The lighting is great to add sparkle to its eyes and the POV, sharpness, natural colours and BG are top.
Thanks for sharing this,
Have a great week,
- [2013-01-29 13:16]
What a pic!Excelent sharpness and focus.Great BG and lovely POV!I love it!You made "your" hyena looks adorable!TFS
Best regards from,
PS: tahns for visiting my gallery!I appreciated it!
A wonderful shot! The details in this hyena's eyes is so beautiful. This is a lovely image and you managed to capture the animal with such preciseness and style. A very special image indeed. I just love the golden sunlight that is part of the scene. Thanks for sharing. Best regards.