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Balkan Fritillary Couple (26)
KOMSIS Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 820 W: 0 N: 2419] (10674)
INSECTA-LEPIDOPTERA-NYMPHALIDAE
Boloria graeca, (Staudinger,1870)
The Balkan Fritillary
The Pearl of the Balkans

Turkish Name: Balkan Menekşe Kelebeği.

Distribution in Turkey: Eastern Anatolia, high mountain slopes.

Distribution in the world: It flies in Greece and countries bordering to the north plus in a small area of Southwest Alps- France and bordering mountains of Italy, the central Balkan Peninsula, Turkey.

Living Area: 800-3000 meters above sea level. Dry or moist grassy, sometimes stony subalpine and lower alpine habitats.

Flight time: One generation flying in Early-July and early-August.

Food Plants of the caterpillar: Caterpillars, Viola spp.(violets) family is fed plants.

Description-Notes: It is a butterfly sub-alpine and alpine meadows. Experience local and rare. One of the smallest fritillaries-(Boloria) in Turkey. Colors and patterns of the hindwing the other " types of Boloria as " very beautiful. Very similar to Caucasian Fritillary, but underside of its hindwing is paler and less reddish. Their ranges do not overlap. It is a butterfly over orange to brown basal suffusion decorated with various brands of brown, round spots submarginal, lines forming festoons. The rear wing is angled at its front edge. Male vivid colors, female pale colors.
Annotation :
Endangerment factors: Boloria graeca is locally endangerd by global warming (at lower altitudes) and always new ski runs and the major threats for the area are related to overgrazing.
Conservation status: CR-Critical



Origin of the name: Graeca (Latin, toponymic.) - Greece.

Wingspan: 40-45 mm long.

Similar Species:
• Caucasian Fritillary ── Boloria caucasica, (Lederer,1852)
• Pearl-bordered Fritillary ── Boloria euphrosyne,(Linnaeus, 1758)
• Small pearl-bordered fritillary ── Boloria selene,(Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
• Weaver's Fritillary ── Boloria dia, (Linnaeus, 1767)
• Mountain Fritillary ── Boloria napaea, (Hoffmannsegg, 1804)
• Cranberry Fritillary ── Boloria aquilonaris, (Stichel, 1908)
• Shepherd's Fritillary ── Boloria pales, ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

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References:

1.Baytas A., 2007. A field guide to the butterflies of Turkey, NTV Yayinlari, Istanbul.144 pp.
2. Butterflies of Bulgaria : >> http://www.butterfliesofbulgaria.com/bolgra.html,
3. Anonymous Butterflies of Turkey : >>http://www.trakel.org/kelebekler/[email protected]&tur=Balkan%20Menek%C5%9Fe%20kelebe%C4%9Fi,
4. 5.Captain's : >>http://www.butterfly-guide.co.uk/species/fritillaries/frit7.htm,
5. Philippe Bricaire’s : >>http://www.fleetingwonders.com/boloria-graeca.php,
6. Butterflies Watching & Photography Society in Turkey: >>http://www.adamerkelebek.org/GozlemFoto.asp?Durum=7&FamilyaId=3&CinsId=53&TurID=183,
7. Butterflies of France : >>http://www.butterfliesoffrance.com/html/Boloria%20graeca.htm,
8. Moths and Butterflies of Europe: >>http://www.leps.it/indexjs.htm?SpeciesPages/BolorGraec.htm,
9. EuroButterflies »Matt Rowling : >>http://www.eurobutterflies.com/sp/graecaB.php,
10. Lepidoptera and their ecology»by Wolfgang Wagner : >>http://www.pyrgus.de/Boloria_graeca_en.html,
11. Lepiforum.de : >>http://www.lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Boloria_Graeca

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Altered Image #1

KOMSIS Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 820 W: 0 N: 2419] (10674)
Location
Edited by:KOMSIS Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 820 W: 0 N: 2419] (10674)

Location: High-altitude, cold and windy.